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Lecture 7

Lecture 7 Notes Complete in-depth analysis of Lecture 7 notes + Chapter 12 analysis from "Exploring Sociology"!!!!!

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Barry Mc Clinchey

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SOC 101 001 Lecture 7
Lecture 7: Education Chapter 12
Wednesday, October 27, 2010
Pierre Bourdieu
- Trying to answer criticism that conflict theorists say about education
o Education as a system is basically operating for benefit of middle class
o Works in a conflict analysis to reproduce advantages > hereditary
Capital: involves any set of useable resources that we have at our disposal (profit or money)
o Is defined as A the set of actual usable resources and powers and exists as may
types; economic, cultural, social and symbolic
o Can exist in objectified capital or cultural capital
Cultural Capital: is one of the forms of capital that contributes to the reproduction of the structure
of power relationships and symbolic relationships between classes
o Different forms of cultural capital that consists of things that you understand
intuitively about social world > inherited from family
o Having an advantage/benefit over another person with the knowledge you possess
o Culture of family of class is different between system of classes
o Cultural expectations are the same in school and at home middle class
o Cultural expectations are different in the work/factories and at home for lower class
- Schools reinforce particular types of linguistic competence, authority patterns and types of
curricula (curriculum in school are right for middle class kids, not for working class kids)
- For those students who already possess the needed cultural resources, school success is
facilitated and academic achievement is enhanced
- Over time the cultural capital can be converted to economic capital/objectified capital
o Finding a job after university
o Will know how to behave > turn cultural capital into economic capital (job)
Social Capital: who you know exists in the relations among persons
- Social capital is basically membership in a group
- This group provides each of its members with the backing of the collectively owned capital
which entitles tem to credit
- Not value in size
- Ex: Fraternity, Church, Club, Team etc… – making friends/connections, networking
- The informed individual is able to invest resources wisely and achieve the best return for
their inherited cultural and education capital
o Make different choices with different cultural capital and social capital (that benefit
you in the long-run)
- This is observed through the us of social capital in the form of a helping hand, or string-
pulling and through the use of the famous, social network gives advantages and power
- Old boy network white middle class men, helping young white middle class boys
- The effects of academic sanctions may be corrected ex: if you come from the right family
and you’re not that smart, you can still get into a prestigious university even though
someone might have better qualifications than you
Mid 1800’s
- Industrial revolution
- Rural society to urban society
- Selling labour for money and goods
- Change in Science (Charles Darwin)
- Immigration (Western Europe to North-America)
- Factory owners condition: semi-literacy knowledge
- Immigrants having many children THUS EDUCATION
SOC 101 001 Lecture 7
- Create an institution to gather all the children; thus educational system
- Education is considered critical to economic development
- Knowledge or learning: society underscores this role of education
- Preparing for changing and uncertain future
- Education is formal learning in institutions that provide learning activities and credentials
- Informal learning: activities arranged and undertaken by individuals to acquire new
- At the beginning of the 20th century, only three-fifths of pupils enrolled in public schools
attended regularly
o Family needed their children to help out on the farm during harvesting season
o Most left school by their early teens
- Today’s students
o Students exposed to diverse subjects and projects to choose from
o Are personally, stylistically, and culturally varied
o Have access to extensive learning and community resources
20th century Educational System in Canada,
- Schools in smaller communities and rural areas remained uncertain and irregular:
o Pupil attendance was sporadic
o Lack of funds
o Inability to attract qualified teachers
o Local taxation funded schools: 1990’s gov. changed the way schools were funded
o Now public schools in Ontario are funded by income tax funds
o Canada: federal government has NO control over education (every province is
responsible for their own education system)
- Late 1950’s &1960’s: Baby boomers must be accommodated schools begin being built
- Centralization
o Enabled by transportation
- Expansion due to the baby boom
- Increased number of students completing high school
- Increased emphasis on post-secondary education
- Community college system introduced in the 1960’s and 70’s (needed highly trained
technical people)
Education in the Learning Society
- Education is central to the new economy
- The new economy relies on rapidly changing information technologies and scientific
- The demands that employees:
o Have capacities to employ new technologies
o Have capacity for lifelong learning
o Can apply their knowledge to emergent situations
SOC 101 001 Lecture 7
Structural functionalism
Human capital theory
Symbolic interactionism and microsociology
Conflict theory
Feminist theories
Structural Functionalism
- Educate youth of societies
- Equal opportunities at education for every one
- Argue is that institutions can go wrong; however, they can be fixed
- Afrocentric School: Change the curriculum for the students
Human Capital Theory
- Make the best use of society’s youth
- Utilize youth in the best possible way
Symbolic Interactionsim and Microsociology
- What happens in school in a micro social setting
o What happens in the class?
o How does teacher ask questions
o What are students doing when they are supposed to be paying attention to the
Conflict Theory
- Main theoretical approach to studying education
- Argue that education is functional for middle class students not functional for disadvantage
- Cultural and economical reproduction: schools only reproduce middle class
- Schools serve the needs of middle class curriculum created by middle class people FOR
middle class students
- Afrocentric School: systemic inequality (won’t agree with solution)
o Argue to fix the racial problem
Feminist Theories
- Reproduce existing systemic inequality
- So obvious that girls and boys experience education differently with process and outcomes
- Hormones between boys and girls (gender differences) effects student’s learning abilities