Week 4 01/28/2014
Goffman – p. 235260
Influenced by Mead.
• Treats humans beings as active & knowledgeable.
o Mead’s self is a central theme in his work.
Dramaturgy – art of dramatic composition & theatrical representation.
• How individuals present themselves daily.
o Impression management – ways in which the individual guides & controls the
impressions others form of him/her.
Front regions – part of the individuals’ performance which regularly functions in a general & fixed
fashion to define the situation for those who observe the performance.
Anything observed by the audience while the actor is on front stage. Actor seriously playing the script of
Setting (stage props), personal front (clothing, gender, “expressive equipment”, facial expressions)
Greater standard for personal front on women vs. men.
Back regions – closed to & hidden from audience, techniques of impression management are
Performer can relax. Be themselves.
When front & back activities are not coordinated, actor does not perform well.
• Always trying to make certain both are coordinated.
“Aren’t we all con artists, after all?”
• Using impression management daily. Acing job interview, being the rock for family members,
o Want to be the one who define the situation for the others.
Discreditable – people who have a stigma they hide but may be discovered at any time.
• Control info others gather about them.
Discredited – people who have a stigma that others can see automatically
• How to deal w/tension that arise when ‘normals’ interact w/stigmatized people.
Function ranking – male performing the executive role both w/in & outside occupational
• Goffman stressed the sociocultural factors that create & maintain structures of human
Interaction order – domain of facetoface interaction; where 2/+ people are physically in one
another’s presence • Discrepencies between appearances & realities and with deception & manipulation.
• Interaction order should be treated as a domain in its own right.
ii. Contacts – physical, letter, phone, etc.
iii. Encounters – people come together into small physical circle as participants in a
consciously shared undertaking (meals, game).
iv. Platform performances – activity is set before an audience (play, conversation,
v. Celebrative social occasions – gathering in honor of jointly appreciated
circums., arriving & leaving in coordinated way.
Week 4 01/28/2014
Influenced by Weber. Sociology is the interpretation of interaction & it has a subjective meaning on the
o Studying people & interpreting who have an interpretation of their actions themselves.
Field of emotion was being understudied she felt.
o Undervalued & understudying connected with the marginalization of women in the field.
o Separating rationality OR emotion does not make sense in reality.
Rationality – men, emotion – women.
Freud – anxiety; Goffman – embarrassment
o Management of your feeling at work. Has an exchange value.
Valuable to employer. High service component in the market. High service = faceto
face, voicetovoice. Worker is required to create an emotional state in somebody else.
Employer exercises some control over emotional state of employee .
Work on our emotion for the purpose of marketing them.
o Happens in the private context. Work, relationship, home, etc. Has a use value. Contributes
to the sense of unity, communal, etc.
Employer controls employee’s emotions to certain extend.
o Flight attendants – dominantly female occupation – sympathy for the flyer.
o Bill collecto