PSYC496AV Lecture Notes - Insomnia, Psychomotor Retardation, Bipolar Ii Disorder

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12 Feb 2013
mood disorders: involve disabling disturbances in emotion, from the sadness of depression to
the elation and irritability of mania.
depression: an emotional state marked by great sadness and feelings of worthlessness and
Depression in children often result ins in somatic complains. In older adults, depression is often
characterized by distractibility and complaints of memory loss.
Symptoms of depression exhibit some cross-cultural variation, probably resulting from
differences in cultural standards of acceptable behaviour.
Although it is commonly believed that people from non-western cultures emphasize somatic
symptoms of depression, while people from western cultures emphasize emotional symptoms,
studies suggest that people from various cultures tend to emphasize somatic symptoms rather
than the emotional symptoms.
psychologizers: people who emphasize the psychological aspects of depression.
Most depression, although recurrent, tends to dissipate with time. About one third of depressed
people suffer from chronic depression.
Mania: an emotional state or mood of intense but unfounded elation accompanied by irritability
and impractical grandiose plans.
The person in the throes of a manic episode, which last from several days to several months, is
readily recognized by his loud and incessant stream of remarks, sometimes full of puns, jokes and
Diagnosis of Depression:
The formal diagnosis of a major depressive disorder MDD) requires the presence of five of
the following symptoms for at least two weeks.
sad, depressed mood, most of the day, nearly every day
loss of interest and pleasure in usual activities
difficulties in sleeping (insomnia), or a desire to sleep a great deal of time
shift in activity level, becoming either lethargic (psychomotor retardation) or agitated
poor appetite and weight loss, or increased appetite and weight gain
loss of energy, great fatigue
negative self-concept, self-reproach and self-blame, feelings of worthlessness, and guilt
complaints of evidence of difficulty in concentrating such as slowed thinking and
recurrent thoughts of death or suicide
what is controversial s whether a patient with five symptoms and a two-week duration is
distinctly different from one who has only three symptoms for 10 days.
Even with fewer than five symptoms and duration of less than two weeks, co-twins were also
likely to be diagnosed with depression and patients were likely to have recurrences.
Five symptoms increased weight, decreased weight, psychomotor retardation, indecisiveness
and suicidal thoughts were not independently associated with the diagnosis. These findings have
implications for the possible revision of the diagnosis criteria for MDD.
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