FMST 210 Lecture Notes - Lecture 3: Return Period, Cascadia Subduction Zone, Epicenter
Course CodeFMST 210
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Impacts from Space and Mass Extinction Events
A. Understand the concept of a biosphere and Earth System Science and that the biosphere
has evolved over time
Biosphere - thin lawyer of life that exists on the surface pf the planet
B. Distinguish between the oldest and youngest portion of a geological section using the
Principles of Superposition, Original Horizontality, and Cross-cutting Relationships
C. Describe the concept of faunal succession and the use of fossils in correlation and in the
subdivision of Earth history
D. Recognize the qualities that make fossils useful in biostratigraphy
E. Identify important historical figures in the development of stratigraphy and
F. Appreciate the scale of changes that can occur over geological time scales
G. List some of the major subdivisions / ages of the geological time scale and appreciate the
relative scale between the Phanerozoic and the Precambrian
H. Understand how extinction events are linked to the structure of the geological time scale
I. List some of the major developments in the history of life on Earth
J. Define the characteristics of a mass extinction
K. List the "Big Five" mass extinction events and their order through time
L. Distinguish between broad extinction-producing phenomena
M. Describe the late Ordovician and Permo-Triassic extinction
N. Describe the character of extinctions at the K/Pg boundary
O. Discuss the evidence used to support the K/Pg impact
P. Describe the location and probable nature of the K/Pg impactor
Q. Initial and long-term effects of the impact and their environmental consequences
R. Consider other potential causes of the K/Pg environmental collapse
S. Describe the type and location of potential impactors and rate of meteor influx
T. List some of the major impact features preserved on the Earth’s surface and explain why
impact craters appear to be rare on Earth
U. Describe some of the features and processes of crater formation
V. Provide examples of Canadian Impact Craters
W. Describe the hypothesis proposed by Raup and Sepkoski
X. List and describe some recent impacts and "near misses"
Y. Understand the risk associated with an impact hazard
Z. List possible mitigation strategies and appraise their relative effectiveness
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The Turbulent Atmosphere - Storms
A. Be wary of the main storm hazards.
B. Recognize thunderstorms, be able to identify thunderstorm components, and how they
C. Explain how storms get their energy from the Sun.
D. Explain the main characteristics that make a supercell thunderstorm so much nastier than
a normal thunderstorm.
E. Be able to recognize thunderstorms in radar and satellite images.
F. Describe the diff. types of lightning, how it form, & what happens when they strike
G. Explain the behaviour of downbursts and gust fronts, and identify their associated cloud
& dust features.
H. Describe why the fact that "cold air holds less water vapour than warm air" is critical in
thunderstorms can extract energy from humid air.
I. Recognize mammatus clouds and the flanking line, and describe their relationship to
J. Explain how vertical and horizontal winds are created by heat released in storms.
K. Explain what the continuity effect is, and how it ties vertical and horizontal motions into
L. Rain and hail hazards of thunderstorms, and actions you can take to be safe.
M. Be able to recognize tornadoes and wall clouds.
N. Explain why supercell thunderstorms spawn the most dangerous tornadoes.
O. Relate the Enhanced Fujita scale to different amounts of damage.
P. Describe safety procedures near tornadoes.
Q. Identify the times and places for high tornado risk.
R. Identify the components of a hurricane.
S. Explain how hurricanes get and utilize heat energy, and why hurricanes can exist for
T. Requirements for hurricane existence, how hurricanes evolve, and what causes them to
U. Describe the risks associated with hurricanes, and appropriate safety procedures.
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