GEOG 121 Lecture Notes - Lecture 14: Elihu Root, Jean-Bertrand Aristide, Toussaint Louverture
Course CodeGEOG 121
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US#Neo'colonialism# and#Environmental# Transformation:# The#case# of#Haiti
1500$1950:' The' majority' of'the' earth’s' surface was' occupied' by' European' states
Dependency:'There' were'a'number' of' countries' which' were'dependent' on' certain'
countries' for' their'goods' (e.g.' cotton)' this' may' be'a'disadvantage
Greater'Latin' American' dependence' on' Europe' in'colonial' period'
(complementarity)' !The' Caribbean' and' the'Latin' American' were'not' able' to'
compete' against' European' produce,' but' instead' produced' products' that'
complimented' Europe' goods
Low' domestic' purchasing' power' in'Latin' America' (highly' stratified' societies)' !
the'majority' of'the'population' in' Latin'America' were'unable' to'purchase'
anything' locally' although' slavery' had' already' ended,' thus' preventing' numerous'
countries' from' generating' economic' growth' which' would' lead'to'demand
Lack'of' adequate' capital' (e.g.' banks)' and' unwillingness' of' Catholic' Church' to'
invest' in'industry' (Church' a'major' landed' interest)' !At'that'period' of' time,' the'
church' held' a'great'economic' value' and' could' have' generated' economic'
growth,' however' they'refused' to'do'so
Strength' of'Latin' American' plantation' interests' (liberal' parties)
US'military' intervention' (support' of'exporters)' !The'US' intervened' to'
keep/preserve' the'trade' and'people' who' respected' the'trade'regulations
Why' has'development' in'Latin' America' and'North' America' been' so' different?
Dominance' or'hegemony' based' partly' on' economic' power' (dependency'
relationship' of' dominated' actors)' !Latin'American' countries' were' already'
dependent,' but' they' needed' to'exchange' for' certain'commodities' (e.g.'
agriculture)' thus' putting' them' at'a'disadvantage' with' European' countries' and'
Dominance' or'hegemony' also' partly' based' on'military' intervention,' but' without'
formal' colonization' or'annexation' !A'prime' example' would' be' the'US
Terms# of#trade:'The'unit' price' you' are'able' to'get'for'one'unit'of' your'major'
exports/all' of'your' major' exports' collectively' divided' by' the'unit' price' you' have' to'pay'
for' a'particular' import' or'all'of'the' imports' collectively)
Oil' is'one' of' the' major' commodities' that'are'influenced' by' terms' of' trade
Latin'America' and' Caribbean' Independence'
US'President' Ulysses' S.'Grant' (1870s):' At'this' particular' stage,' the'Britain' promoted'
free'trade' with' free'and' cheap' trade' barriers' (e.g.' low' imports/exports),' the'president'
was' one' of'the'few' countries' which' were'pressurized' by' Britain' to'adopt' free' trade'!
this' is'considered' only'advantageous' to'the'Great'Britain' as'they' are'the'only' ones'
with' protectionism' (as'they' are'the'workshop' of' the'world' during' that'time)
The'president' stated'that'they' will' not' open' up'free' trade'barriers' until' they'
themselves' had' undergone' protectionism' like' Britain
As' the'US'relied' heavily' on' imports,' they' tried' their'utmost' to'develop' and' advance' in'
exports' and' therefore' create'trade' in'the'US’' advantage' (US' Senator:' stated' that'they'
should' adopt' Britain’s' stance)
US'Secretary' of' State'Elihu' Root' (1906):' Believed' that'Latin' American' countries' should'
specialize' in' exporting' their' products' (e.g.' cotton,' sugar)' rather'than' competing' in'
At'that'particular' stage,' the'US' was'beginning' to'become' more' industrialized' and' well'
established' in'the' trading' world
He'claimed' (with' a'racist' profile)' that'Latin'Americans' were' unable' to'become'
industrialized' as'they' did' not' have' expertise' in'technology' and' was' considered' more'
‘carefree’' in' comparison
19th' Century' US' Military' Interventions' in'the'Americas:' This' was'due' to'oppositions'
from' the' Latin'Americans' against' the'US' for'their' trade'implications' (where' they'
This' led' to'US'intervention' to'sustain' the'Latin' Americans' followed' the'trade' policies'
1920s$30s' US'Military' Interventions' in'Americas:' The'intervention' became' more'
limited' as'there' was'less' need' of'it'although' there'was' a'long' history' of'intervention,'
this' is'due' to'long' establishment' of'the'trade'policies' and'lack'of'opposition
The'Intervention' Racket:'A'piece' of' text'written' by'the'general' of' the'military' force'
described' the' methods' in'which' they' intervened' to'maintain' the' economic' trading'
relations,' it'was'described' to'be'comparable' to'Al'Capone' but' bigger'and' badder
Toussaint' Louverture:' First' great'slavery' rebellion' (abolished' slavery' in'Haiti)
There' was'hope' for' greater'welfare' after'the' revolution' overtime,' but' it'did' not'turn'
Haiti'was' one' of'the'first' countries' to'abolish' slavery,' however' they' had'a'great'
disadvantage' and' was' more' challenging' to' become' as' economically' dependent' like' US
1804:' US'and' France' did' not'recognize' Haiti'as'independent
1825:' France' recognized' Haiti'but'there' needed' to'be'an'exchange/payment' of'
1862:' US'begins' to'recognize' Haiti,' they' took' a'long' period' of'time' as'slavery' did'
not' fully' abolish' until' this' time'(it'was' a'gradual' process)' !they'were'also'
worried' that'the'slave' rebellion' would' spread' to'the'US' as'well' if'they'
recognized' them' as'independent
1914$34:' The' US'sent' occupation' forces' to'Haiti'as'they' did' not' approve' of' the'
government' in' Haiti'(troops/military' were'sent' to'Haiti'and' selected' people' who'
were'most' light$skinned' to'represent' the'Haiti'people' instead' !this'was' due' to'
There' were'consequences' to'this' action,' as'darker$skinned' people' (e.g.' Papa'
Doc)' created' an'uprising/regime,' claiming' that'they' will' abolish' the'lighter$
skinned' leaders,' although' they' preached' good' will' they' were'actually' using' it'
for' their'own' purposes' and'led' to'dire' consequences
Some' of' the' struggles' included' (US' and' French' Foreign' Policy' in'Haiti):
Higher' impoverished' nations/communities' in' Haiti
The'ability' to'sell' off/make' a'profit' from' their' produce' became' limited
This' caused' political' struggles' in' Haiti'(e.g.' the' rise' of'Jean$Bertrand' Aristide'
and' the'Lavalas' movement)
Haitian' Development' Debacles:' A'sugar' export' economy' !there'were' a'number' of'
consequences' as'there'was' declining' terms' of'trade' and' less' trading' opportunities,'
Friday,' 23' October,' 2015
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