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History 102 Sept 2010 Notes

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HIST 102
Christopher Friedrichs

September 2010 History 102 Jess GiangCh 13Creation of a new world marketThe 15th Century About 450 million people whose dominant lifestyle was agriculture some were nomads and hunters1490s is considered turning point in world historyEuropeans begin to have oceanic contact with Americas and AsiaIn most societies there were already systems in place to transfer the farmers proceeds to others seen as paying rent to landlords taxes to govt foodanimals to noblesWork done by peasants but benets reaped by landlordsaristocratsResulted in a surplus of wealth held by the landlords etc and allowed them to live leisurely patronize art culture hand out scholarships and for governments to wage warSome Political Entities in 1500AsiaCHINA100 million people a strong unied state incorporated various cultural groups and almost all the Han Chinese in the worldOften referred to as empireYuan Mongol dynasty 12791368 Zhang He Cheng Ho 13711433 Ming dynasty 13681644JAPANSecond most signicant society of East AsiaStrong unied state under which almost all the Japanese were under one rulerEurope HOLY ROMAN EMPIRE in Western EuropeSeveral differences with China Contained several small states ie Kingdoms of France England Scotland etc whose constant warring for land power and wealth constantly changed the political map Lines of political authority in Europe were unclearHad a holy Roman emperor but his power was not so greatnot like Chinas emperorNumerous Kings of Scotland France Denmark etc whose King was the emperorPrincipalities Duchies CityStates etcCompetition between states for wealth power and prestige encouraged INNOVATIONnew ideas so that it can be used to defeat the other countriesIslamic WorldOTTOMAN EMPIRETurkish Took over most of Asia Minor North Africa Egypt the Balkans in Europe Persia and destroyed the last remaining bits of Constantinople aka Byzantine modern Istanbul Single dominant religionIslam Muhammed was the prophet of Allah monotheisticMany of the subempires of the Mongol empire when it broke up adopted Islam as their religion and expected their subjects to do the same Contributed to the spread of IslamFive pillars created an idea of strength and cultural unityAmericasLarge landbased tributary empire Engaged in lots of wars in order to get tributesAZTEC EMPIREMexicoExtreme separation from most of the world INCA EMPIREWest coast of South America Peru EcuadorTRAVELING By landboats wagons with a sail moved by the windnot very common walked boatsships the rich were carriedSeptember 2010 History 102 Jess Giang Short distance traveling was usually for economic reasons bringing your products to the marketplaceLong distance travelingfor economic reasons usually seminonperishable products like silk grains metalsSought to bring resources abundant in one area to areas where they were considered valuable Religious reasonspilgrimages to places that were considered especially holy and thought that by doing this that their Goddeity would favor them as a reward for the effort that they made for traveling the long distances Often by foot sometimes by shipRelocation of officialsbeing promoted and having to moveSlaves were a commoditytransferred from place to placeSometimes due to tourism Tourists usually from China but still extremely rareMilitary reasonsnot many people travelled in huge numbers Military traffic usually carried out on animals horses and elephantsMost often means of traveling longdistance is by ship Fleets of ships were often organized by governments because individuals often didnt have the resources to outt ships to take goods from one place to another Sometimes organized by a band of merchants working togetherA merchant is a person who generates wealth by arranging a transfer of products from where they are common and cheap to where they are scarce and expensive You must be able to invest some kind of capital to arrange for this transportationAGE OF EXPLORATION AND EXPANSION early 1400slate 1600sSpring 1498Vasco da Gama Portuguese arrives at Calicut in West India and goes home with a cargo of spices setting the stage for Europes participation in the Spice trade that opens up the trade routes to Asia The European expansion in Asia also eventually results in Western domination of the trade routes in the Indian Ocean and the establishment of colonies in Asia Africa and Latin America Islam and the spice trade1400sIslam begins transporting more spices to Sumatra and Java islands in Indonesia from India and the Middle EastMuslim merchants try to convert the island people to Islam1400sa Hindu establishes his kingdom at Malacca in Malaysia a major meeting place for Muslim merchants He converts to Islam to better his chances of proting from the merchants passing through the regionMalacca soon becomes the leading economic power in the region and promotes the spread of Islam to other trading ports throughout SE Asia Malacca was an important trade center because it possessed spicessomething scarce in most of the world and therefore valuable used to make food that had begun to gone bad edibleSpread of Islam into West Africa1415th centuryMuslims cross the Sahara desert into the Niger River ValleyThe kingdom of Songhai is formed by Sonni Ali and soon becomes a major trading stateAlis successor was a Muslim who used Islamic institutions and ideology to strengthen national unity and his own powerIt was the one of the last states to dominate the Niger River Valley before European dominationA new player EuropeEuropeans attracted by tales of a rich magical and exotic land to the east undertake voyages to try to make contact with the EastSeptember 2010 History 102 Jess GiangWhy Rise of capitalism in Europe outrageously expensive spices hopes of nding precious metals GET RICH expanding the areas of trades and spreading Christianity are the main reasons for their voyagesHow Centralization of power in the Crown allowed countries to expand outwards Improvements to ships and developments in technology and knowledge resourcecarrying capacity warfare cartography compass allowed them to regularly travel beyond EuropeEurope and Christianity In Europe the highest level of society was noblesaristocrats who served the Kinga hereditary status or bestowed by the KingSome people came to serve the King by giving him money and as a reward he granted them the title of nobleOne way to make money was by selling products and being a merchantSo you might start out as merchants and eventually come to be powerful wealthy landowning aristocratsA very wellknown example is the Medici familyYou can become rich through economic activitiesChristianity is premised on the assumption that it is the one and only true religionMany other religions take a more open vieweach religion will worship their ownEuropeans came to believe that if they came upon another country that had no way to resist Europeans and were not Christians it was their right to impose Christianity upon the area seen as doing them a favor by exposing them to Christianity The Portuguese maritime empireMost active traders were generally Arabs carrying spices or slaveshuge economic activity in the Indian Ocean attracted Europes interest but routes were difficult to access for EuropeansInstead of navigating through the Mediterranean many politics conicts impeded travel there at that time they decided to try to go around Africa but they didnt know how big Africa was Henry the Navigator of Portugal 13941460 leads the organization to try to go around Africa he never actually sailed a ship but directed the ships from Lisbon in PortugalThis trip was never accomplished in Henrys lifetime1441rst cargo of Black Africans are brought by Portuguese ships back home and soldIn 1471 they discover a new source of Gold along the coast of West Africa and leased land from local rulers to build forts that would facilitate the trade in gold ivory and slaves1498Vasco da Gama reaches Calicut believing that it is the source of the spicesGoes back home with a cargo of spices and makes a prot of several thousand percentEarly 1500sPortuguese set out to take over spice trade Takes over Malacca and kills its Muslim popn because 1 it can block passage through the Strait of Malacca hindering the Arab spice trade network and 2 it can serve as a port for ships traveling east to the Spice islands They then travelled to China and the Moluccas Spice Islands make a deal with the local sultan to buy and export cloves to Europe and within a few years the Portuguese gained control of the Spice Trades from Muslim Arabscreate huge prot for Portuguese MonarchyPortuguese were successful mainly because of guns and seamanship although they were not the only ones with guns their ships were able to maintain their distance while hitting the enemy with cannonsSpanish conquest in the new worldAs the Portuguese headed east across the Indian Ocean to try to reach the Spice Islands the Spanish tried to reach the same place by traveling west across the Atlantic
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