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HIST 103
Glen Peterson

History 103 – Lecture Notes September 9 – 1400s to mid 1900s European voyage 1. Scientific Revolution 1600s 2. Industrial Revolution – Britain outward - Britain: culture of acquisitiveness (owning, possessing), philosophy: human mastery over the natural and human world - New World Order – New European order took over western Europe and USA o 1. Economic domination industrialized powers of the west o 2. Political domination – vast colonial empires, across the world until WWII (mostly) th - 20 century saw beginnings of new global trends o 1. Shifts in international: balance of power (1870 – 1914)  Marked beginning of relative decline of the west, flaws of European system showing, rise of Japan, Russia as new economic and political powers  Decline and elimination of the West/ European colonial empires 1920 – 1960  Economic growth in Asian countries and South American countries o 2. Intensification of cross-cultural interactions (1914 – 1945)  Revolutions in communication technology: Radio, TV, jet travel, fax, computer, internet, digitalization of information, open/closing of borders  Economic integration on global scale, 1945 vastly accelerated  Colonization, migration, relocation of people as part of colonization  Displacement of unprecedented numbers of peoples  Canada, US< Australia populate new Western frontier o 3. Political and social transformations in the name of equality (1945 – present)  “Sweeping” collapse of monarchies, political revolutions, decolonization, rise and fall of communism and fascism, accompanied by great violence  Worst things done by legal governments at the time  Driven by question for equality St o French revolution 1 claim o Marxism social faults in capitalism o Russian and Chinese dedicated to abolishing inequalities  Domestic and among nations o Against colonialism also fueled by quest for equality o Ghandi, Martin Luther King (1960s), Nelson Mandela, Women’s movements, LGBT movements Is the world become more homogenous? Is KPOP creating universal youth culture? MTV? September 11 – Industrialization and Urbanization Key Themes and concepts  Mass production  Alienation of Labour  Urbanization  New social class  Re-definition of family and gender roles  Growth of th estate  Nations and nationalism - Industrialization – basis of production, application of machines o Closely tied to inventions of key machines  Steam engine – James Watt o Things formerly produced on a small scale (single product made by one person from start to finish)  mass produced by machines instead of human labour  Assembly lines, people man the machines st - Why did industrialization occur 1 in Britain? o 1. Technological foundations – steam engine o 2. Natural resources – Britain had lots of natural resources needed for powering steam engines  Coal o 3. Capital reserves – world’s leader in international trade, provided capital reserves and therefore could invest in machines and factories o 4. Ideas and ideological – since 18 century, thinkers, material progress, mastery of science over nature, ethos of the spirit, the ideology of material progress science over nature lead to economic - Britain  Belgium  France  Germany  Japan  North America o 1. Textile production – clothing (machines for spinning thread, weaving clothes, sewing clothes). o 2. Mining  Excavating minerals o 3. Transport and communications  Steam shipping – transport of goods and people much more rapidly than before possible  Railways – knit together economics and countries  Telegraph – economic communication  Helped consolidate international relations, push its effects out into the world - Industrialization transformed economic and political life in dramatic ways o 1. Huge increase in scale of production  Artisan vs machine  Unprecedented material abundance and prosperity  Unevenly distributed o 2. Reorganization of production  Scattered and dispersed, small artisan workshops and made at home vs production and work employs lots of people, concentrated in one area  Labour becomes divided and specialized  assembly lines, one worker responsible for one minute part of the assembly line  Work more routine and boring  Alienation of the worker under industrial  Worker separated from products of his or her labour o Pride lost, control lost over finished product o Product belonged to factory o Worker owned nothing - Urbanization – industrialization people migrate from country to city for work and betterment - Population becomes more urban, more people lived in cities th o Latter half of 19 century: more than 50% lived in cities - Suburbanization o Cities magnet for poor, looking for work and better life o Urban property crimes increased  people moved from city to safe, tranquil suburbs - Creation of new social classes o Destroyed livelihood of artisans and craftspeople therefore industrial working class created (proletariat)  Bad conditions, low wages, health and safety questionable, job security, rampant child labour  Expansion and reconfiguration of middle class  Lots of people didn’t belong to upper or proletariat class  middle class – townspeople engaged in commercial activity, artisan, doctors, teachers  Members of the middle class became salaried employees of government bureaucracy o Specialized knowledge, climb up social ladder  Education pursuits for social advancement - During 18 century in Europe, bourgeoisie united against aristocracy and nobility o Middle class demands  end birth right privileges o Want constitution and legal order based on justice o Middle class became champion on principle, people politically equal to pursue choice of livelihood  United by fear of working class below them who are demanding changes  Greatest threat to security, wealth and prosperity - Early 20 century – middle class champions prisons, police forces, asylums to contain dangerous poor - How did it alter social/political consequences in Europe? o Pre-industrialization  Rulers: monarchy and nobility  Power extent varied tremendously  Republics were 2 countries: France and Switzerland  Making alliances with the nobility who owned the land lasted into the 20th century - International Relations opened tradition of ruling class to new emerging industrial class o Prominent industries and bankers and merchants inducted into ruling class - Industrialization brought amalgamation composed of monarchs and new representatives of industrial workers September 16 – Redefinition of Family and Gender Roles - Pre-industrialization: single economic unit = family o Women commerce o Child learned work skills of parent, work at early age o Not much separation between family life and work - Work and family are 2 separate spheres in industrialization o Family: shelter and sanctuary from pressures of work and world  Safe haven, insulated  Redefinition of gender roles in family  Men  out to work, “breadwinners”  Women  guardians of domestic sphere, of home environment, nurture, caregiver, took sole responsibility of raising children  Dual effect: o 1. Labeling wives as homemakers, enhancing moral stature, feminine virtues, caring, empathy o 2. Women’s actual social roles became more constricted and restricted and diminished, range of options open shrank  Women from middle class gradually went out to work, very specific occupation, care-giving and nurturance, nursing, teaching (examples) - Feminization of occupations and masculinization of others - Pre industrialization: children valued and desired for economic reasons o Induced to work at early age - Post: children for emotional reasons and economic/practical reasons - Members f middle class and state invoke compulsory schooling o Developed end of 19 century o Double effect  Shifted responsibility for socialization of children out of family and put it in the hands of the state run school system  Created new kind of transitional life period, childhood vs adulthood  adolescence - Industrialization changed everything: economy to family relations Broad Political Consequences - Industrialization caused severe social dislocations – traumatic transformation - Minority grew wealthy - Traditional livelihoods destroyed = miserable lives with machines in primitive factories - Cities were crowned with poor and unemployed, crime increased, class conflicts - People thought of alternative ways to organize society - Politics 3 main forces o Conservatives  Preserve institution most closely associated with old values (church, monarchy, army), social roles  Want to conserve and retain old pre-industry society, values  Continuity, tradition over change and innovation  Drawn mostly from old, elite, landed aristocracy o Liberals  Drawn from new elites, business and professional circles  Upwardly mobile members  Stood for political and economic changes that would enhance voice and position in societies  Freedom of speech, assembly, press, religion, trade  Demanded vote for property owning males  Clash of 2 privileged groups o Socialists  Utopian socialists  Yearned for return of days of pre-industrialized society  People made living off of land, agriculture  Valued co-operation over individualism  Small model communities gather to live out pre-industrialized way of life  Scientific socialists  Vision of future was not based on emotional past  Based upon universal stages of human history  No turning of the clock  Capitalists own and profit from factories o Workers are exploited  Class struggle that produces changes that drive history  Karl Marx - Pre-Industrialization – aristocracy vs. bourgeoisie - 1850s – property owners vs. working class - Capitalists in hunger for profit, wages lower and lower because everyone wants a job rise up and overthrow capitalism o Establish a socialist then communist society - Marx didn’t see power of consumption - Message appealed to impoverished working class - Germany 1900s – socialist most powerful force (Social insurance: Bismarck) - Very nature of government was transformed under Industrialization o Dramatic expansion of role of state in daily life o 1870s start o Government takes over welfare functions (previously church and family), education, medical care, poor relief, prisons, counteract appeal of socialist parties o Taxation to build buildings (schools, prisons) - Penetration of state into society o Never interacted with them at all o Then interacted daily basis - State begins demand more from citizens o Pre-Industrialization: obedience to laws and customs o Industrialization: active loyalty of citizens  Creation of modern nationalism  Energized millions of people  Force responsible for unprecedented war and destruction rd September 23 – The Making of the European Global Order Two Transformations - Over course of 1850 – 1950, world as whole went through 2 big transformations o 1850 – 1914 – WWI  European powers and US had direct/indirect control over countries in Asia, Africa and Latin America  Europe controlled ~35% of land mass (1800), rose to 67% (1850), by 1915 w/ US controlled 85% of the world territory  Few countries were able to avoid colonization o Only 3 in Asia: China, Japan, and Saiam (Thailand)  Strongly affected by formal pressure o Only 2 in Africa: Ethiopia (evaded in 1896) and Liberia - Nations of Latin America nominally independent but influenced strongly by US and Europe - After 1914, system of dominance began to crumble, slowly then quickly o Outbreak of WW2, anti-colonialist movements - 1949-1968, 800 million people were decolonized o UN membership 51  156 countries (1980), most were newly independent countries from Africa and Asia - Motives of European Colonialism o Strategies of colonial rule o Why did it all collapse only a few decades after? - Imperialism: refers to extension of sovereignty or control, political, economic, or cultural whether direct/indirect by one government or one people over another o Even when politically independent country, people may be indirectly controlled by outside forces o Economic domination o Cultural domination Economic Motives - European search aimed at luxury goods and precious metals o Spices – used to preserve/disguise rotten meat o Silk from China o Gold and silver from Latin America - Early 1800s – quest for raw materials o Securing them o Establishing oversea market for selling finished materials o Shift from luxury goods o Cotton in huge demand  Important factor in colonization of India by England  England suppressed cotton spinning so India would sell England their cotton, England took it making new products and resold it to India Political Rivalries - Among European Powers: international status measured in part by number of oversea possessions it had o Age of nationalism o Small countries could rise to power by amassing oversea colonies - Competition for status  colonize areas not that economically advanced o Only after prestige Religious Motives - Evangelical desire to convert non-Christian people to Christianity o Especially Spain and Portugal took saving of souls seriously o Protestants and Catholics operated overseas independently of their government  Only French government made official policy to promote Catholicism The Civilizing Mission - Intertwined with religious mission - European ideas of superiority o Had moral obligation to bring “civilization” to “savage” peoples on global basis - Product of industrial Revolution o New technological superiority to Europe encourage assumptions of European cultural and racial superiority  Government convinced people they were innately superior  Backed by bogus academic and quasi-scientific theory  Set out to prove by scientists that non-Europeans are biologically superior o Others needed European superiority - Described other cultures as barbarian/savage o Way of controlling that didn’t involve guns and violence - Colonialism and imperialism wasn’t just a form of physical control o Also intellectual construct o Way of interpreting the world; us and the others - Intense competition to carve up the world between European countries September 25 – Forms of European Domination - How did a small group of European countries manage to secure 80% of the worlds land mass for even a short period? o Combination of superior military force and technology o Political strategies: how to govern/rule o Local cooperation o Psychology - 1. Military force and technology o Steam shipping made possible to ship people, goods, soldiers and weaponry around the world o Railways (mid 19 century) made possible penetrate deeply interior regions of Africa and Asia to secure raw materials and markets  More officials, ministrations, troops o Modern weaponry  Colonial powers can intimidate and crush any opposition o Smallest part - 1915: most western countries in Asian and Africa were maintained w/o presence of large armies and police forces o Small number of Europeans maintained rule over vast Native population - Turn of 20 C: 40 million Nigerians were governed by 380 British officials o By 1945: all armies in the world could not maintain colonial rule - Military force not critical in maintaining colonial rule - 2. Strategies of political, symbolic and psychological domination o Indirect rule  British first used in Africa  Dutch used in today’s Indonesia o Existing elites run day to day government  supervised and governed by small number of colonial officials at the top  People may have little/no direct interaction with foreign rules  Place themselves at top of existing political structures o Worked until indigenous rulers began losing credibility  People saw them as puppets of foreign masters o Divide and rule  Exploit already existing ethnic and cultural cleavages in order to prevent any unified resistance  Colony wide census in which primary criteria for classification was ethnic status/identity/group  Play off Muslims vs Christians, one African tribe vs another  To reserve civil service positions for particular ethnic/religious minority  Ensured loyalty of privileged ethnic group  Fostered jealousy between privileged minority and regular minority  Import ethnic minority from one colony and put in another to perform economic task o Wake of abolition of slavery: people who ran colonies needed new sources of labour  British relied on Indian and Chinese labour  People recruited under contract and sent overseas to work  Long term social consequence after colonialism ended - 3. Local collaboration o Rested firmly on active collaboration on part of local functionaries  Clerks, local officials, teachers o Anti-colonial nationalists had to deal with it, figure out what side they were on o Colonialism created many new opportunities for social mobility  Spawned class of social climbers  Resented and despised by others  Collaborators thought they were doing best for society because they were aligning themselves with progress and superior civilization - 4. Psychology o Colonizers worked very hard to promote a self-image as bearers and representers of powerful and superior civilizations o Forbid entry of poor Europeans into colonies as to not puncture image o Propaganda! Through school and newspapers  Superior and inferior position was natural/normal/right  Convince colonizing countries - Started to break down when Africans and Asians went to Europe for higher education o Discovered they were treated more or less like anyone else  Could go to restaurants, ride trolleys, etc. o Caused questioning colonial arrangements back home  How could such a small country rule such a large country? - Economic: new global division of labour o Colonies supplied raw materials and cheap labour, served as market for European countries o Lead to economic dependence that became difficult to break/change  Total reliance on monoculture economy  Dependent on one good - Economy geared exclusively toward colonial power where most countries had strong links to colonial power but few links amongst each other - Second long term consequence for world history o Regidification of existing cultural boundaries and creation of new ones o The strategies of divide and rule, colonial powers created rules that were brimming with societal, cultural, and ethnic presences o Formerly privileged minorities became targets of retribution and punishment - Beginnings of 1830s-1920: 2 distinct streams of global migration o 1. European (largely) consisted mainly of impoverished European migration to NA  White settler colonies – Australia, NZ, South Africa o Asians, Africans and Pacific Islands who moved because they had been indentured laborers under contracts - 2 streams never came into contact for most part o Went to separate place o But! Australia, SA, Hawaii, and West Coast of Canada/US  Late 1800s, very sharp violent conflicts broke out between 2 streams over job competition  Laws passed to protect privileged positions of white settlers September 30 – Latin America Key Ideas  The colonial economy  The social pyramid  Social tensions and the roots of nationalism - First conquered by Spain and Portugal in the 1500s th - Colonialism came to an end in the mid 19 century - By 1850, Latin American countries achieved political independence from Spain and Portugal, however they came under the influence of powers such as Britain and the US - Latin America was discovered accidentally (shortcut to Asia) o They had been searching for Asian spices - Cortez Spanish conquest of Mexico in 1520 revealed that LA was extremely rich in natural resources (gold, silver, hardwood forest, agricultural land) - Colonization of North America vs Latin America o Both began at the same time o Both involved confrontation of European settlers populations with indigenous populations o Both involved conscious efforts to construct colonial based economies and societies o NA developed diverse economies (crops, industry, trade, finance)  gave rise to complex societies o In LA, there was no diversification of the economy  Focused on extracting the region’s wealth and shipping it back to Europe  Colonial social order was constructed in order to facilitate the process of extraction (pillage of natural resources)  Existing societies and relationships were smashed and remade to serve the needs of the new transatlantic economy - The conquest o Undertaken on a private basis (adelantado, conquistador were contracts with Spain and Portugal) by social climbers re-establishing privilege o Spanish colonialism (Mexico, Peru, Columbia) o Discovered three highly developed civilizations (Mayans, Aztec, Inca) - The colonial economy o Based upon a system of agriculture which the state controlled both the land and the labour o Plantation based agriculture o “Indians” were declared to be the property of Spanish and Portuguese crowns o In return for spreading European values, the crown demanded their loyalty and their labour o Latin landed estates produced sugar and other crops for export (hacienda, fazendas) o Peonage – a system of indebtedness  Under this system, Indians were enticed to work in the mines and plantations for wages  Many people sold themselves into servitude this way  But by concentrating people into mines and plantations, they were exposed to European diseases o The Spanish and Portuguese turned to importation of African slaves to help with their labour (1538 in Brazil) o 5 million African slaves were sold into Brazil and remained intact until the 1800s (Brazil 1850, Cuba 1866) o To make up for loss of slave labour, LA turned to Asian indentured labour for mines and plantations (India and coastal regions of China) - The social pyramid o Rigidly stratified societies where social class and ethnic background were linked o 3 main groups (indigenous peoples, Africans, and Europeans) o Difference between people born in Europe and LA o Creolo  identified more with local aspirations o Peninsular  occupied higher senior positions in government and business o The middle group are those of a mixed percentage (Mestizos, Mulatos)  Great deal of interracial marriage  It was sanctioned  However, they were barred from certain occupations - Spain and Portugal wanted to Christianize the natives – spread of empire and religion is the same thing - Economic theory of mercantilism o Influential body of economic theory prior to free trade o A country’s wealth and power is determined by its inflow of gold and silver and colonies exist in order to strengthen the mother country  It is desirable to acquire oversea colonies October 2 – Latin America (continued) - Class and ethnic minds went together everywhere - Social arrangements result of social economy - Chief o Mining o Plantation/Agriculture  Both huge labor forces for export to Europe - Labour force created by various leads o Indian population declared population of Spanish/Portugal crowns  Death by disease  Asian and African slaves - Society resembled giant pyramid - Combo of political grievances and economic opposition to mercantilism  drive for political independence in Latin America o Early 1800s, locally born Europeans were beginning to identify more with lands of birth rather than Europe  Pride as thinking themselves as Brazilians and Mexicans  Resented political control from afar  Resented interior position on pyramid vs Europeans born in Europe - Nationalist feeling increased, hated primary reason of colonial country was to serve the mother country - Mercantilism: 15 – 1700s, countries wealth determined by inflows and outflows of precious metals - Local elites began to resent colonial economic restrictions o Began to demand right for free trade o Colony should trade only with mother country (mercantilism) - Early 1800s – Latin Americas were inspired economically and politically by their neighbor to their north (USA) - United States example of breaking away from colonialism - 1887 – Napoleon invades Spain and Portugal, sending Portuguese royal family in exile in Brazil o Power Spain and Portugal was greatly diminished - Latin Americas seized this opportunity to declare independence from Spain and Portugal o 1830s-40s: most Las were independent - Independence was lead by the Creolo (local LA born European elites) except 2 o Except Haiti – gained in 1804 as a result of slave revolt o Except Paraguay – independence movement lead by Roman Catholic Priest Jose Francia  Seized church and elite lands  redistributed them to the poor - Old Spanish colonies  18 new nations, none sure of themselves o Domestic fragility compounded by foreign weakness - Britain took control of Latin America immediately after independence o Had leading role in trades and finance and sea routes o British had control of free trade o Had huge appetite for raw materials - LAs might be subject to re-colonization by other European powers o Feared re-colonization by other powers o Helped drive new countries into warm political embrace of US - US felt threatened by Las o Feared security of new independence o US had set sights of LA riches - 1823 – James Monroe (president) annunciated Monroe doctrine o President claimed Protector role of LA for European imperialism o Asserted that Americas not up for grabs o US saw re-colonization of LA as a threat to own security - 1904 – threat of re-colonization  growing anti-US sentiment in LA o Roosevelt (president) – amplified Monroe Doctrine  US would henceforth regard itself as a right to intervene militarily in LA country judged to be guilty of “chronic wrongdoing”  US decides what constitutes wrongdoing – Roosevelt’s Big Stick  Ushered period of increased US influence economic and military invention - 1898-1933: US intervened militarily in LA 13 times o Many more times since 1933 - US replaced British as dominant economic power in LAs - Foreign domination and economic - Domestic situation o Social pyramid remained in tact o Political independence elevated to power a small group of locally born Europeans  Strongly desires of political individuality and sovereignty  No desire to rearrange social and economic arrangements  Control of land and labour remained key to economic power of elite - Mining of gold and silver decreased, plantation expanded to meet the needs of industrializing countries o Handled export of raw materials o Involved foreign trade - Middle class profs (teachers, lawyers) - Despite earlier political nationalism, elites in independent LA continued to look at Europe as a model o Fascinated by political and economic theories in Europe  Civilization and progress  Little relevance to LA realities  Looked down on own country  Built cities that mimic capital cities of Europe  Peasants continued to live in medieval poverty and landlessness o No political voice - Politics in post-independence period – closed private club o Members of elite online o Voice of church: liberals wanted to minimalize/limit power  Conservatives wanted to conserve o Made for unstable societies - Political power was usually exercised by authoritarian strong man o Populists who claimed they were acting for the poor o Actually wanted to preserve colonial patterns o Came from landowning class o Supported by church and army - Army becomes crucial force in LA - LA is fertile ground for populist leftwing movements th October 7 – Ottoman Rule - Founded in early 13 century - Founder: Osman o Europe followers named Ottoman’s - Founded in central Turkey – extended power in all directions o Height of power 1500s – empire encompassed vast part of Middle East, North Africa Balkan States of Europe – capital present day Istanbul then known as Constantinople - Majority of population was Muslim as were Ottoman Rulers o Ottoman sultans patronized Islam to secure loyalty of Muslim subjects o Iraq, Syria, in Turkey there were minorities o Egypt: Christian minority o Jewish communities in Iraq, Syria, Egypt and present day Greece o European: Christians formed majority - Muslims worked as administrators, merchants, artisans in urban state (city) - Christian majority made living as farmers - Bosnia – large clan of rural Muslim landlords - Greece – Muslim landlords controlled ½ of agricultural land - Ottoman projected rule over vast area over heterogeneous population o Lasted for 7 centuries - Until late 1800s – success of rule based on 2 key factors o 1. Diversity  Rather than top down administration, practiced indirect rule  Relied upon existing political and economic elites, variety of pre-existing local arrangements o 2. Minimalist – superficially ruled  Demanded very little from subjects  1. Loyalty 2. A share of local tax returns - System served Ottoman’s well - Early 1800s – starting to unravel, weaken o First Ottoman province to break away was Greece 1830 o Meanwhile Arab sections were gradually being swallowed by European colonialism o French seized Algeria (1830), Tunisia (1881) o British – Egypt (1892) - Out of collapse, 2 crisis o 1. Balkan Problem  Competing nationalism and ethnicities  Sparked WW1  Temporarily suppressed by communism  1990s – destroyed lives (Bosnia, Kosovo) o 2. Modern Middle Eastern Problem  National and religious tensions - Look at political and cultural forces were unleashed by collapse of Ottoman empire - Key historical context: Twin threat posed by rise European Power o 1. To Ottoman Rule o 2. To Islamic Culture and societies - Centuries: Islamic people had pride in themselves and Islamic innovations o Contributed to modern European culture  Science, math, architecture - Islamic held its own against Europe  security provided by Ottoman Rule - Beginning of 19 century – 3 major European powers competing for control over Ottoman territory o 1. Russia (Czarist) – advanced racial claims as protector of Slavs  As a means of expanding Russian influence  Converted Istanbul  Mediterranean shipping through Gibraltar states o 2. Austria-Hungary views Balkans as economic and commercial expansion o 3. Britain – opposed to Russian advances  Have interest in India  Suez Canal (1869) as a safe, secure, speedy route to India  British to oppose/prevent Russian interference  Propped up by Ottoman Empire with political and military assistance  Ottoman benefited from British - Sudden rise of Europe threatened Islamic societies in Asia and Africa - Increased European threat took several forms o 1. Political subjugation o 2. Dutch colonized Indonesian archipelago populated by Muslims o 3. British took over India – imposed colonial rule over large Muslim group o 4. British-Malaysian peninsula with majority Muslim population - Late 1800s – Islamic world was enveloped in growing sense of crisis o Coincided with other historical development o European theories of national sovereignty and self-determination translated into language of Ottoman Empire  Discussed in schools - In Balkan peninsula, great effect from late 1800s - Islamic region at Ottoman rule – ideas had a huge effect o Demand political independence o Responding to intellectual questions - How to deal with fact that Islamic civilization was threatened with extinction o Dual crisis  1. Yearning for independence from Ottoman rule  2. Larger sense of cultural crisis – Islams in process of being colonized - Reform impulse, desire to make changes with sense of urgency o 2 different groups of Ottomans  1. Ottoman Court in Istanbul  Highest rulership – fear European imperialism and growing sense of nationalism  Want to reform for conservative reasons  Created polices, army, law courts  2. Islamic religious and cultural establishment Africa, Middle East  2 main groups o 1. Religious teachers who were in villages teaching kids  Spent careers studying, intrusion of Europe was political  Colonial threat and religious cultural threat  Different idea how to best counter challenge of Imperialism  Holy war to drive them out  Reform to fundamental teachings of Islam  Strengthen defenses against foreign pressures o 2. Religious scholars - Most effective strategy – adapt and adopt western institution on selective basis o Master secrets of western economic power rd o Pursue 3 course of action  Modern army  Economy, railways, telegraphs, post  Legal constitution (1867)  Require western style education  New elites saw Ottoman rulers as problem  Rulers fled overseas – including Turkish intellectuals set up in Paris o Young Turks - Began to construct all modern paraphernalia - Newly educated elites saw Ottoman rulers as a problem o Tried to impose strict political control - Young Turks (newly educated elites) (1908) succeeded of overthrowing Sultan o Found themselves in control o Retain institution but turn Sultan into figurehead – no political power o Reform measures: preserve and strengthen Ottoman Empire  6 years later WW1 intervened  Ottoman empire dismantled  consequences present today October 9 – China and Japan - Both belong to Sinic cultural area/ Confucian cultural area o Sinic – China - Group of Asian countries Vietnam  Korea, with Japan o Japan influenced by Chinese traditions (religious, literary, philosophical) - China was centre – oldest continuous civilization o People use same written language, cultural/ethical values; eat some of the same dishes from more than 2,000 years ago. - China became unified state in 221 BCE o Dynastic system of government lasted for next 20 centuries down to 1911 o During 20 century  numerous occasions were conquered by foreign nations, usually from the north  Not once did foreign conquest attempt to replace dynastic system of government  Saw only to install themselves at the top of is  System worked well for intended  1644: Manchu people conquered China and established their own dynasty: Qing dynasty (pure) th - 18 Century – China was acknowledged political, economic and cultural colossus of East Asia o Emperor: Sun of Heaven quasi-divine being  Derived power from heaven - Smaller countries around China expected to acknowledge China’s centrality o Asked for tributes in form of specialized unique products - Emperor expected to reciprocate with more valuable gift - Ambassadors from foreign countries expected to perform in elaborate rituals o Central to rituals was Kowtow o Rituals give meanings/expression - When Europeans came, expected to do the same - 1793: King George III send nephew Lord McCartney to press for more trade routes and establish embassy in China th o Arrived on emperor’s birthday (80 ) o Go before the emperor, McCartney thinks he’s negotiating mission  Diplomatic standoff – refused to perform Kowtow  Recognition of inferiority of British, King of English  Rebuffed – no trade treaty, no embassy, GTFO  Sent a famous letter from emperor  King George - Britain had craving for Chinese silks, porcelain (Chinaware), tea o 1658: tea introduced, expensive and display of status  Diffuse through social order th - Turn of 19 C – they can sell China opium – lucrative o Produces Opium in India  ship to China and sell it illegally o By 1835 – Britain is shipping 35,000 crates of Opium every year o 1839 – Chinese emperor decides to try to stamp out trade  Commission Lin sent to stamp out trade  Seizes huge quantity of opium and destroys it o 2 theories  1. Got workers supervised officials to burn it  2. Dug ditches and waited for the tide to wash it out  1. Find out drug traffic  2. Find addicts  sanatorium  3. Go after foreign importers - British outraged at illegal confiscation - Dispatch military delegation – 1 opium war 1839 – 42 - Dealt humiliating defeat to China 1842 o Forced China to sign a limited trade treaty to foreign trade o Began end to China’s traditional government  Within 60 years political,, social and cultural changes lead t collapse of China’s dynasty in 911 - At first most Chinese officials were unaware of foreign threat o Remained confident in system o Some noticed the dangers  Find out secrets of west power and adopt them  Especially military secret/technology to strengthen China  Borrow selectively - Preserve social, cultural and political beliefs - 4 decades early 1860s  19 century group of young people argue military reform not enough o Not merely in technology, key in western power deeper o Ideas, values political institutions o Implied need for deeper assault on traditional society and government - “Survival” – social Darwinism (survival of the fittest) o Only strongest races of people are going to survive - Some argue dynastic system is source of problems – Sun Yat Sen o Leader of republican movements  model US - 1912 – republic succeeded taking Chinese dynasty down o Forced to flee and relinquish power o Chinese republic lasted 5 years  1916, ruled by regional warlords - Deeply troubled China October 16 – Japan Enters 20 Century - Japan’s modern transformation was way different than China’s despite similarities o 1. Direct military impact of imperialism in 15 years o 1852 – Arrival of US Navy - China was sick man of Asia - Japan’s rapid transition: isolated + traditional society  modern industrial military power by 1900 o 1900: emerging industrial power o Joined club of imperialist nations by acquiring own colonial nations - Industrialization in Japan introduced from above for political rather than economic reasons o Means of strengthening country against West imperialism - Architects: small group of 30-something year old political reforms o 1. Recognize need for change o 2. Had little steak in existing system - Japan had decentralized political system  power diffused and spread out among hereditary warrior class (Samurai) - For a century (1450 – 1560) – divided into small feuding states ruled by regional warlords (daimyo) and private samurai warriors o Daimyo became strong enough to unify Japan – Tokugawa Ieyasu - 1603 – arranged for Japanese emperor and convinced him to grant him shogun title o Supreme military commander - Shogunate lasted until 1860 (2 centuries) - They imposed isolation, force and seclusion o Until mid-1800s when they start declining  Western powers beginning to press for greater economic and political concessions - US Naval Matthew Perry – Tokyo harbor with four battleships and challenged the Shogun over closed counter policy - Perry demanded Japan to sign a trade treaty  gave a year to decide - Shogun unsure - Shogun officials favored opening the country – won the day - Japan signed limited trade treaty - Americans gave gifts – model railroad, telegraph, 100 gallons of Bourbon whiskey - Japanese gave Americans sumo wrestling display - 1858 – Paris Treaty – further opens Japan - Japan signs similar trade treaties with Britain, Russia, etc, 1854 - Tokugawa Shogunate – beginning of the end - “Treaties symbols of Japanese weakness” – people - 1868 – 2 most powerful regional daimyos wanted to overthrow Tokugawa Shogunate o Meijii Restoration  Carried out coup in name of traditional Japanese values and restoring emperor to proper position and power  Reality was the opposite  1868 – 1912 Meijii emperor – figurehead with no real power  Real power behind throne in young samurai leaders  Motives anything but tradition o Modern and nationalistic o Build up Japan economically, politically, and militarily so it could compete with the west o Take system of decentralized government out and replace with highly centralized national government with power at the top  1884 – constitution model of Prussia  Mandated creation of legislative system and modern army and navy o Government lead in developing modern ideas for economy  Identified key sectors of national interest o Compulsory education for boys and girls 1907 - Plan pays off - One obstacle  lack of natural resources especially key natural resources (iron, coal) o LEAD Japan to join rank of imperialist powers o 1894/95 – Japan went to war with China  Japan defeated China  Japan claimed Taiwan until end of WW2  Asserted control over rocky uninhabited islands - Japan will colonize Korean until end of WW1 - 3 motives o 1. Economic driver – natural resources o 2. Imperialism glorified as yardstick/measure for force o Humiliated by western force – proving equality and status - Colonies of your country taken seriously st October 21 – The First World War - 1 time terrible consequences of raging war with technological means - 30 million people killed, 20 million people permanently disabled - August 1914 – November 1918 o Armistice November 11 - Entire map of Europe redrawn o 3 major empires gone  1. Ottoman  2. Austria-Hungary  3. Russian - Newly independent highly fragile cultural and political states - WW1 had far-reaching effect on nature and size of government o Extent government intervened into societies  Political, economic, social, cultural purposes - Labour shortages  women join labour force - WW1 stirred forces of anti-colonial nationalism - Terms of peace treaty to conclude WW1  rise of Hitler and WW2 - Eastern Question – Who’s going to take over European parts of Ottoman Empire? Balkan States? - 2 powers coveted Balkans o 1. Russia  Southward push to gain access to Mediterranean o 2. Austria-Hungary  Economic prize  rich agricultural area - Russia  pan-Slavism to attract support o United under leadership of Russia - Austria-Hungary – military force - War originated in Bosnia (1914) o Province under Ottoman empire (5 C – 1908) - 1878 – Austria-Hungary troops  Bosnia occupied 1878 o 1908 annexed those 2 places (part of AH) - Greatly angered Serbs o Serbian nationalists wanted to create owns state with the help of Russia - 1912 – independent states of Serbia and Bulgaria went to war against Turkey and defeated Turkey - June 28 1914 – Sarajevo, Serb nationalist killed heir Austro-Hungarian throne Franz Ferdinand - Within 5 weeks of firing shot all major European powers had been drawn into the war - What caused WW1? o 1. Article 231 of Versailles Treaty – put blame on Germany  Evil plans laid down by Germany’s rulers  Issued Austria a blank check to attack Serbia  Using crisis as a means of expanding Germany’s power  Supporting Austria in a war against Russia and France  Product of German aggression - Wars are rarely caused by individual evil rulers - Must’ve been consensus that war was acceptable means a dispute resolution o Alternative: mutual recognition: disputes should be resolved peacefully by third party (mutual) o Not problems within Europe, wanted to gobble up the rest of the world - Use of military force = way to solve disputes - Military alliances were key o Start: political tensions within Europe following two events  1. Unification of Italy (1870)  2. Unification of Germany (1871)  Political colossus - Enter into military alliances with one another - 1882 – Germany (Bismarck) + Austria-Hungary + Italy = Triple Alliance - 1907 – France + England + Russia = Triple Entente - Compulsory military service – young men to build large military force - Greatly increased military protection/rescue o No alliance – Franz death issue involved only Austria-Hungary and Serbia o AH declared war on Serbia  Russia mobilized troops along border at Germany and Ah  Germany declared war on Russia and France o Germany declared war on Belgium o Britain and France persuaded Italy to join war by promising land in the Middle East o Canada, Australia, NZ join because of colonial ties to Britain o US joins because Germans sank supply ship from Britain o Turkey enters to limit Russian influence o Japan entered because alliance to Britain - Global war o Everyone thought it’d be over by Christmas - Stalemate all along western front form France to Atlantic coast o Switzerland to English Channel - Fighting from trenches - 1914 1916 going nowhere - 1917 – 2 developments o 1. Russia withdrew following Bolshevik Revolution – Soviet government  1 priority to make peace with Germany 1918 o 2. 1917 US entered war on side of Britain and France - 1918 – subject nationalities - Weimar Republic sued for peace th - November 11 1918 – Germany signed armistice agreement - Various victorious parties gathered in Paris to make settlement on war to end all wars o Key questions of peace makers of Versailles  1. What to do with Germany?  2. Ottoman and AH empire territories? - 5 ways WW1 was different o 1. Fully industrialized War (first) o 2. WW1 unprecedented mobilization of resources and population o 3. Government unprecedented effort to regulate support for war  Government propaganda o 4. European government borrowed heavily from US (debtor  creditor) o 5. Genuine worldwide war in history because Europe’s vast colonial empires rd October 23 2013 – Results of WW1 - 1919 – Victors assembled in Paris with 2 key issues o 1. What to do about Germany? o 2. Former territories of AH and Ottoman Empire - Decision making dominated by France (Clemenceau) Britain (Lloyd George) and US (Wilson) - US major power in politics after this event o Helped break stalemate and bring Germany’s defeat - Wilson  Paris, new kind of international politics based upon moral principles instead of narrow pursuit of individual o Wilsonian idealism – 14 points (1919)  End of alliance system  Creation of new international assembly of nations  League of nations  Respect and preserve each other’s independence and territorial integrity (sovereignty over territory) - League no formal power to enforce views o Function on basis of mutual trust, good will and willingness to abide by the rules  Fatal flaw - League Headqua
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