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Lecture

Week 10 Reading.docx

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Department
History
Course
HIST 103
Professor
Jeffrey Byrne
Semester
Winter

Description
Week 10 Keyterms Meiji Restoration Fall of Qing, Chinese Republic founded, 1912 - The Qing government was ineffective  overthrown by the Chinese Revolution in 1911 – 1912 - Qing rulers relied on Japan for: 1) financial assistance and political advice - The new government formed looked to Europe for support - Anxious to retain Manchuria (Manchukuo) and Inner Mongolia Washington Conference, 1921-1922 - @ Washington Naval Conference - Main achievement: Five Power Treaty  simply tonnage ratio for existing capital ships and temporary halt for 10 years from constructing new ships  Participating countries: US, Japan, France, Italy, Britain - Other achievements: 1) Limit the naval arms race 2) Reduce Pacific tensions - Also significant as global negotiation for peace  regret when comparing the with the vague specification during Paris Peace Conference - In a similar manner to Munich Pact, Nazi-Soviet Pact: this conference prevents the Japanese from expanding its naval force to terrorize Chinese Mainland and Southeast Asia  Japan was willing to do it since other powers also had to limit their naval force Washington Conference System! Shidehara Kijuro’s “New Diplomacy” - Shidehara was a delegate to the Washington Conference - advocated an anti-militarist policy after WWII - gist of the diplomacy  peace settlement, open negotiations, opinion mobilization Kwantung Army - an army for the Imperial Japanese Army - important role during the war against the Soviet Union at the end of the 1930s - they were a bit radical and violent in their conducts Manchurian Crisis, 1931 - Is this the railway crisis?  blaming an unnamed Chinese terrorists Japanese government’s “Fundamental of National Policy” document, 1936 p. 179 - @ Fundamental Principles of National Policy - Results:  Involve economic integration of Japan, Manchukuo, and northern China  Economic penetration in Southeast Asia  The acquisition of undisputed naval primacy in the Western Pacific - This national policy has the effect to strengthen Japan’s economic and military strength Nanjing Massacre, December 1937 [166 – 169] - Crime committed by the Japanese - The Chinese people and the Kuomintang soldiers were at that time trying to escape from the Japanese through the Yangtze River  The soldiers thought that the swarming refugees will impede their process of escaping. So, they closed the Yijiang and Peace Gates  As a result, the trapped refugees can neither escape nor retreat  The Kuomintang soldiers took control of the boat to escape  Some committed suicide, some were forced to drown themselves in the river - The Japanese indiscriminately shot people Soviet-Czechoslovak-French security agreements, 1935 - French did not sign this but signed the Munich Pact because France, together with the British wanted to prevent another war with the Germans - Due to this, Czech was annexed by the Germans - Soviet became an ally of Czech Stalin’s Great Terror/Purges (1934 – 1939) - was enforced by the Communist Secret Police - extermination of those against the process of industrialization and kulaks (well-off farmers) - played effect on Stalin’s military strength during Operation Barbarossa - mission to eliminate individuals who are suspected to be Stalin’s enemies  by using forced confessions Kristallnacht, November 1938 (Night of Broken Glass) - Jewish shops were shattered - economical and political persecution - the event before The Final Solution and The Holocaust - before this event took place, German-Jewish were worked in various industries, but when Hitler took power, the Jews were discriminated at various levels The Phoney War [around 1942 – 1945] - between Germany, and British and US - it’s called phoney because both parties only dodged each other by moving along different routes. The Allies moved along Eastern France and Germany along Dutch and another European country Manchukuo - Japanese puppet government - Actually a Manchurian independence movement financed and controlled by the Japanese occupation army  established a sovereign state of Manchukuo - Manchuria  richly endowed with agri resources - US government was cautious in expressing their view  American and China’s strategic interest was minimal – not worth to wage wars  American and Japan commercial and financial concerns  US Congress refused the funding to bring American naval – so US didn’t have enough strength to cause anything Anti-Comintern Pact, 1936 - Alignment of German-Japanese to suppress the Communist International - Suspected to suppress Soviet Union - 1937 – Italian joined the pact  alliance of Italy (Musollini) – German (Hitler) – Japan - Delays to the Pact: was largely due to conflict of interest: 1) German’s reluctance to sacrifice its relationship with China  was overcame when the Germans recognize the Japanese puppet state of Manchukuo 2) Japan’s reluctance to attack Great Britain and Soviet Union  by doing so will involve the US Popular Front - Under the leadership of Joseph Stalin’s Soviet Union - P 125- 126 Munich Accords/Conference, 1938 - Britain and France were desperate to do this as they are not prepared to wage another war - Organized by the Fuhrer - Attended by leaders of Britain, France and Italy excluding Soviet Union and Czech - This was after Britain persuaded Musollini to intervene with Hitler’s plan to avert another war with Czech - German’s demand: removal of Czech military forces from Sudetenland  this ease German’s process of infiltration - Czech: was denied the request to send a written objection - Ultimately: Munich Pact was Hitler’s small victory. The Prague government was weakened - Romania (access to oil and wheat), Yugoslavia, Hungary, and Budapest (withdrew from League of Nation and joined Anti-Comintern Pact) as the result of Munich Pact agreed to establish an alliance with the Germans Pact of Steel, May 1939 - Between Germany and Italy  to advance Germans’ ambition to fight against Britain and France - Marked the failure of the Anti-Comintern Pact or Berlin-Tokyo Axis  further convinced Stalin that to establish an alliance with the Germans - Russia will then won’t be affected by German’s westward expansion plan since the Germans are not interested to expand eastward Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact, August 1939 - @ Nazi-Soviet Pact - Enables the Nazis to launch its attack on Europe - Marked the end of Stalin’s double game by receiving German’s invitation - Molotov was Stalin’s henchman that replaced the previous Jewish Foreign Minister - Ribbentrop was Hitler’s Foreign Minister who worked to secure Stalin’s attention and also because Hitler urgently needed to complete his Polish campaign before winter - The commitment shown by the Germans compared to the Britain and France convinced Stalin even more to cooperate with the Germans - As for the Germans, Stalin’s commitment by replacing his Jewish Foreign Minister indicated his commitment - Ultimately: Soviet Union (Russia) and Germany became partners in crime - Stalin action was similar to Chamberlain and Daldier in the sense that he was to able postpone a war with the Germans Week 10 Reading: Ch. 4, pg 135 – 147 [GERMANY AND JAPAN] - Hitler’s strategic plan  German-Japanese rapprochement (1936 – 1938) / Berlin-Tokyo Axis  Encourages Japanese Imperialism in East Asia to put pressure on German’s enemies colonials  Britain: won’t interfere with German’s plan if it faced simultaneous threat to its imperial interests  France: Manchuria will be attacked by Japanese. As a result, Soviet Union (Germany’s ally) won’t have to fulfil its obligation to Czech - Hitler’s Problem:  It’s close relationship with the Chinese Nationalist regime of Chiang Kai-shek since mid-1930  Benefit to China: 1) Military advisers that help modernize China’s armed force and mi
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