Class Notes (838,169)
Canada (510,724)
History (317)
HIST 103 (127)

Week 10 Reading.docx

7 Pages
Unlock Document

HIST 103
Jeffrey Byrne

Week 10 Keyterms Meiji Restoration Fall of Qing, Chinese Republic founded, 1912 - The Qing government was ineffective  overthrown by the Chinese Revolution in 1911 – 1912 - Qing rulers relied on Japan for: 1) financial assistance and political advice - The new government formed looked to Europe for support - Anxious to retain Manchuria (Manchukuo) and Inner Mongolia Washington Conference, 1921-1922 - @ Washington Naval Conference - Main achievement: Five Power Treaty  simply tonnage ratio for existing capital ships and temporary halt for 10 years from constructing new ships  Participating countries: US, Japan, France, Italy, Britain - Other achievements: 1) Limit the naval arms race 2) Reduce Pacific tensions - Also significant as global negotiation for peace  regret when comparing the with the vague specification during Paris Peace Conference - In a similar manner to Munich Pact, Nazi-Soviet Pact: this conference prevents the Japanese from expanding its naval force to terrorize Chinese Mainland and Southeast Asia  Japan was willing to do it since other powers also had to limit their naval force Washington Conference System! Shidehara Kijuro’s “New Diplomacy” - Shidehara was a delegate to the Washington Conference - advocated an anti-militarist policy after WWII - gist of the diplomacy  peace settlement, open negotiations, opinion mobilization Kwantung Army - an army for the Imperial Japanese Army - important role during the war against the Soviet Union at the end of the 1930s - they were a bit radical and violent in their conducts Manchurian Crisis, 1931 - Is this the railway crisis?  blaming an unnamed Chinese terrorists Japanese government’s “Fundamental of National Policy” document, 1936 p. 179 - @ Fundamental Principles of National Policy - Results:  Involve economic integration of Japan, Manchukuo, and northern China  Economic penetration in Southeast Asia  The acquisition of undisputed naval primacy in the Western Pacific - This national policy has the effect to strengthen Japan’s economic and military strength Nanjing Massacre, December 1937 [166 – 169] - Crime committed by the Japanese - The Chinese people and the Kuomintang soldiers were at that time trying to escape from the Japanese through the Yangtze River  The soldiers thought that the swarming refugees will impede their process of escaping. So, they closed the Yijiang and Peace Gates  As a result, the trapped refugees can neither escape nor retreat  The Kuomintang soldiers took control of the boat to escape  Some committed suicide, some were forced to drown themselves in the river - The Japanese indiscriminately shot people Soviet-Czechoslovak-French security agreements, 1935 - French did not sign this but signed the Munich Pact because France, together with the British wanted to prevent another war with the Germans - Due to this, Czech was annexed by the Germans - Soviet became an ally of Czech Stalin’s Great Terror/Purges (1934 – 1939) - was enforced by the Communist Secret Police - extermination of those against the process of industrialization and kulaks (well-off farmers) - played effect on Stalin’s military strength during Operation Barbarossa - mission to eliminate individuals who are suspected to be Stalin’s enemies  by using forced confessions Kristallnacht, November 1938 (Night of Broken Glass) - Jewish shops were shattered - economical and political persecution - the event before The Final Solution and The Holocaust - before this event took place, German-Jewish were worked in various industries, but when Hitler took power, the Jews were discriminated at various levels The Phoney War [around 1942 – 1945] - between Germany, and British and US - it’s called phoney because both parties only dodged each other by moving along different routes. The Allies moved along Eastern France and Germany along Dutch and another European country Manchukuo - Japanese puppet government - Actually a Manchurian independence movement financed and controlled by the Japanese occupation army  established a sovereign state of Manchukuo - Manchuria  richly endowed with agri resources - US government was cautious in expressing their view  American and China’s strategic interest was minimal – not worth to wage wars  American and Japan commercial and financial concerns  US Congress refused the funding to bring American naval – so US didn’t have enough strength to cause anything Anti-Comintern Pact, 1936 - Alignment of German-Japanese to suppress the Communist International - Suspected to suppress Soviet Union - 1937 – Italian joined the pact  alliance of Italy (Musollini) – German (Hitler) – Japan - Delays to the Pact: was largely due to conflict of interest: 1) German’s reluctance to sacrifice its relationship with China  was overcame when the Germans recognize the Japanese puppet state of Manchukuo 2) Japan’s reluctance to attack Great Britain and Soviet Union  by doing so will involve the US Popular Front - Under the leadership of Joseph Stalin’s Soviet Union - P 125- 126 Munich Accords/Conference, 1938 - Britain and France were desperate to do this as they are not prepared to wage another war - Organized by the Fuhrer - Attended by leaders of Britain, France and Italy excluding Soviet Union and Czech - This was after Britain persuaded Musollini to intervene with Hitler’s plan to avert another war with Czech - German’s demand: removal of Czech military forces from Sudetenland  this ease German’s process of infiltration - Czech: was denied the request to send a written objection - Ultimately: Munich Pact was Hitler’s small victory. The Prague government was weakened - Romania (access to oil and wheat), Yugoslavia, Hungary, and Budapest (withdrew from League of Nation and joined Anti-Comintern Pact) as the result of Munich Pact agreed to establish an alliance with the Germans Pact of Steel, May 1939 - Between Germany and Italy  to advance Germans’ ambition to fight against Britain and France - Marked the failure of the Anti-Comintern Pact or Berlin-Tokyo Axis  further convinced Stalin that to establish an alliance with the Germans - Russia will then won’t be affected by German’s westward expansion plan since the Germans are not interested to expand eastward Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact, August 1939 - @ Nazi-Soviet Pact - Enables the Nazis to launch its attack on Europe - Marked the end of Stalin’s double game by receiving German’s invitation - Molotov was Stalin’s henchman that replaced the previous Jewish Foreign Minister - Ribbentrop was Hitler’s Foreign Minister who worked to secure Stalin’s attention and also because Hitler urgently needed to complete his Polish campaign before winter - The commitment shown by the Germans compared to the Britain and France convinced Stalin even more to cooperate with the Germans - As for the Germans, Stalin’s commitment by replacing his Jewish Foreign Minister indicated his commitment - Ultimately: Soviet Union (Russia) and Germany became partners in crime - Stalin action was similar to Chamberlain and Daldier in the sense that he was to able postpone a war with the Germans Week 10 Reading: Ch. 4, pg 135 – 147 [GERMANY AND JAPAN] - Hitler’s strategic plan  German-Japanese rapprochement (1936 – 1938) / Berlin-Tokyo Axis  Encourages Japanese Imperialism in East Asia to put pressure on German’s enemies colonials  Britain: won’t interfere with German’s plan if it faced simultaneous threat to its imperial interests  France: Manchuria will be attacked by Japanese. As a result, Soviet Union (Germany’s ally) won’t have to fulfil its obligation to Czech - Hitler’s Problem:  It’s close relationship with the Chinese Nationalist regime of Chiang Kai-shek since mid-1930  Benefit to China: 1) Military advisers that help modernize China’s armed force and mi
More Less

Related notes for HIST 103

Log In


Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.