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HIST 325
Jonathan Newell

 Review: Lost Harvests: The Sage of Indian ReserveAgriculture on the Plains 1880s-1920s  Overview: ◦ At the time of reserves, some families had large lands but then population grew and less land available and some sold their lands to get supplies ◦ Treaties specified reserve farms and ranches ◦ Delayed while reserves were surveyed; starving ◦ Failed because ultimately insufficient reserve lands for Prairie agriculture and no access to capital markets--> individual farming rather than collective ◦ Government imposed peasant agriculture policy 1888-1897, post Northwest rebellion--> break reserves and forced assimilation (Hayter Reed, Indian commissioner for Northwest Territories) ◦ Most reserve farmers could not overcome these obstacles  Lecture: “Strangers within our gates”: Social and Institutional Responses to th Immigration, Early 20 century ◦ Ethnocentrism th ▪ Much effort in the early 20 century to shore up the “Anglo-Saxon Nation” idea in Canada ▪ Tides of foreign immigrants, THE major national social problem; Canadianization, the solution ▪ Assimilating immigrants inAnglo-Saxon civilization: political party platforms; protestant church organizations, public schools, YMCA, labour unions, press, all took up the cause ▪ Methodists and Presbyterians in the forefront ◦ JS Woodsworth (1874-1942) ▪ Woodsworth was one such individual ▪ Ontario-born, grew up in Brandon Manitoba ▪ Well-known social reformer ▪ Later one of founding leaders of CCF party, forerunner of NDP ▪ Role of his experience in Winnipeg; “Gateway to the West”, whose North End was an overcrowded immigrant slum with pigs and chickens in the unpaved streets and high infant mortality ▪ Winnipeg most important city in 1900s (settlements near Red River) ▪ Trained as a Methodist minister but sought an alternate assignment: Superintendent of theAll People's Mission in Winnipeg's North End--> can work hands-on with people ◦ Woodsworth's Strangers within our gates 1909 ▪ Written over several years at theAll People's Mission ▪ Some chapters by newspaper reporter (the most racist parts) ▪ Published by Methodist Church ▪ Much
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