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University of British Columbia
Near Eastern Studies
NEST 101

e r a f h g u o s e c n e u l f n i l a r u t l u c n g i e r o f d n a o t l a i t n e s s e s i n o i t a g i r r i o s r o f d e i p u c c o , o g a s r a e y 0 0 5 , 4 l i n A d o g f e i h c a i m a t o p o s e m r e l i s y e l l a v e l i t r e f h t i w e p a c s d n a d n a s i l o p o r c a h g i h e h t e e s y t i c t n e i c n a e r a l l a w e h t n i w e r b e h e h t f o s k o o b e h t n n w o t r e w o l e h t m o r f e t n w o t r e w o l e h n o i t c e t o r p e r o m h t i w n o i t a v e l s k l u a B e h t n i t f e l e b d l u o c s r e b m u n d e x o b , e t i s e h t f o w e i s r e b m u n e g A n o r I - e g A e z n o s n e s m o h T m o r f d e p o l e v e d m e t s y s ) n o r I , e z n o r B , e n o t S ( m r o f t a l p d e t a v e l e n a s s d o i r e p r e t a l n i s n o d e t n i a p n e e b d a h t a h t s e n o c y a d n a l e h t f o y t n u o b e h t g n i t a r s e n i f e d y r a t i l i m n i r o e d a r t p i h s g n n o g a w r a w s i h n s r e i d l o s s i h f o d a e h e h t t a r Wednesday, January 4, 2017 staircase, but surrounded by spaces for storage of foodstuff and workshops for food, pottery, metal implements 
 -more than a place of worship but an economic powerhouse of this city 
 -people owned a lot of property and agricultural estates around area 
 Ur: Far south 
 -famous because it is mentioned in bible, birthplace of Abraham 
 -one claim to fame is a large cemetery dating to ED period, called the royal cemetery 
 -has several rich burials found full of treasures 
 -treasures found of gilded gold bull heads, the finds of musical instruments 
 -evidence for human sacrifice 
 Plans of Queen Puabi’s Tomb, Ur Cemetery: 
 -know name from bead with inscription 
 -she is buried in her own tomb chamber, laid out on a table surrounded by rich personal possessions 
 -found bodies, based on what they were wearing and holding onto tells us they were male bodyguards and female servants 
 -killed at the time of her death and buried with her to serve in the afterlife 
 Akkadian Empire 2334-2193 BC 
 -began to get lust for power, turn to other territories they can control 
 -King Sargon makes move to control more than his own city 
 -his background and origins are uncertain but we know from inscriptions he was able to conquer all of the area of sumer 
 -establish something of a kingdom or a empire 
 -Akkad is the homeland 
 -with this conquest all of the previously independently gov city states 
 12 Wednesday, January 4, 2017 now fall under the control of Sargon 
 -with ambitious military streaks he conducted campaigns into the north and into the land to the east present day Iran, extending the boarders 
 -reasons for conducting these campaigns is search for resources, the area was research poor and needed to go outside to find these materials 
 -making military conquests secured trade routes to important sources of Metal: copper, tin, stone, timber, 
 Sargon came from different ethnic group than the Sumerians 
 -in northern part of Southern iraq 
 -homeland of the Akkadians 
 -earliest semetic language we have 
 Victory Stele of Naram-Sin c. 2254-2218 BCE 
 -sargons grandson, campaigned vigorously throughout mesopotamia, wanting to expand and keep trade routes open 
 -stele celebrates his conquest and successful military campaign into the mountains of Iran (Zigguras) 
 -encountered locals and was able to defeat them 
 -hierarchy of Scale, he is much larger than his soldiers 
 -looking up to sun/ sun god 
 _first mortal human to wear horned helmets, only seen on images of gods and goddesses, forcing viewer to regard himself as divine 
 -eventually everything falls apart 
 -brings us into a dark age after the Akkadian empire which lasted for 150 years
 -finally see a resurgence of sumerian cities again 
 -especially those who still existed in the south, begin to reassert themselves 
 13 Wednesday, January 4, 2017 -happened around 2112 BCE, especially in the city of Ur 
 Ur-Nammu is the first king, starting the Ur III dynasty: 2112-2004 BCE 
 -have the creation of a kingdom or empire like the Akkadians that came before 
 -one outstanding features is highly centralized administrative system, carefully controlled by the state, had extensive bureaucracy that kept a careful order over all its state run enterprises 
 -scribes took careful records of everything they received (Tax and tribute) and how it was used 
 -palace, canal, rations of labourers 
 -know this from the thousands of Cuneiform tablets at Ur and a number of other cities serving as tax collection places 
 -illicit digging and looting in iraq spread these tablets in markets in Bagdhad, taking them back to museums and private collections 
 -scribe would impress signs with sylus in wet clay, then dried in the sun 
 -some would bake it even more to preserve the table 
 Ziggurat of Ur-Nammu, Ur (Ur III Period) 
 -built by Ur-Nammu the king himself 
 -ziggurats are now more complex with 3 different levels, temple on the very top
 -built for patron deity Moon god Nanna 
 -today best preserved example we have 
 Most famous Ziggurat is the Tower of Babel in Babylon 
 -mentioned in the bible 
 -would have been 7 stages high, now just a pile of rubble 
 As organized as the state was, with its capital and beaurocracy, didn't last long, just shortly after the reign of the second king that it showed 
 14 Wednesday, January 4, 2017 signs of weakness, 
 -number of foreign groups pressing in from several fronts 
 -a reappearance of people from the outside, 
 -one group was from Elam, the Elamites, invade into sumer from the east 
 -other groups from the north and west, the Amorites had originated there 
 -a tribal people with pastoral nomadic background, came from semi desert areas, move in numbers Monday, January 16th 
 UR III Empire: 2112- 2004 BCE
 -got as far as end of third millennium with UR III Dynasty 
 -a dynasty of kings based at the site of UR in south, first king is Ur Nammu
 -able to extend their control over the whole southern mesopotamian 
 -had a highly centralized system, everything came through the royal palace and was administered by scribes appointed by the king 
 -sumerians resurgence, they again gain more control after the period of akkadian dominance 
 -development of stepped ziggurats 
 -towards 2004 the UR III State experienced attacks from the outside, invaded by the Elamites (?) and growing number of Amorites (pastoral nomadic group) invading from inland syria 
 -will bring an end to the UR III Dynasty 
 Isin-Larsa Period: 2004- 1793 BCE 
 -goes back to just individual cities controlling own immediate territory 
 15 Wednesday, January 4, 2017 -named after two cities who had a bit more control than others, Isin and Larsa
 -both vied for control over larger areas, frequently in competition with one another 
 -these are cities that were controlled by Amorite kings, had grown in power to the point where they have control 
 -other Amorite city that gains control is Babylon, slowly begins to take control over all of southern mesopotamia, heralding in new period 
 Old Babylonian Period: 1792-1595 BCE 
 -first king is Hammurabi 
 left behind the Law Code Stele of Hammurabi (1792 BCE) 
 -tall stone made of polished black basalt 
 -has on it 282 legal pronouncements in cuneiform 
 -believed to have been made by Hammurabi himself during reign 
 -almost a commemoration stele, showcase him as a great law- giver 
 -top of the Stele shows king standing in the gesture of Piety (hand to nose) in front of the seated god (know this because of his horned helmet) Shamash, the god of justice and law, also associated with the sun 
 one law example: if a man accuses another of murder, but that mad cannot bring forth evidence, they shall kill that man (the accuser) 
 -tell us a lot about social institution, status of women, slaves, prisoner of war, civil disputes 
 New Amorite Dynasty at Mari c. 18th century BCE 
 -developments happening outside of southern mesopotamia 
 -Mari located along the Euphrates river, modern Syria just near the Iraqi border 
 16 , s r e d u a r a m t r e s e d , r e i k s i r t u b e m a c s n o i t a p u c c o l a t i p a c e h t n i n e e s n r e d o m a r e d n u s i l l a t u b , e c a Wednesday, January 4, 2017 of enemies 
 Hittites (1400-200 BCE) 
 -even further north than Mitanni 
 -another group who dominated the region of present turkey 
 -another militaristic group, most successful with extending territory with series of swift campaigns against neighbouring regions 
 -Capital city: Hattusas (Modern Boghazkoy) 
 -lots of stone available in this area that was utilized by the Hittites, lots of remaining architecture of stone (i.e. Lion Gates), and carving in stone
 -even see carving into natural rock facing, i.e. Sculptured Rock Chamber, Yazilikaya 
 -on the rise in this period 
 -during the latter part of the 2nd millennium they become a big force to be reckoned with 
 -period of the new kingdom, Pharaohs began to make campaigns into the area of modern Israel, Lebanon, and southern Turkey 
 -in this expansion they started butting heads with all other kingdoms of the near east 
 -a number of cities along the mediterranean coast become major port cities for trade 
 ie. Ugarit
 -know a lot of it because it was excavated 
 -a lot of connections with places in the mediterranean sea, including island of Alashiya, even greece 
 -lots of imported goods found 
 19 ) n a e a n e c y M ( e c e e r G d n a l n i a m e l p o e p e s e h t f o t a e f e d g n i w o h s f o s r e b m e m d n a s e i r a t i n g i d n g i s f e i l e r l l a w d e v r y t i e d e v i t c e t o r p a s i f o r e w o p d n a s s e n t a e r g e l p o e p s i h d n a g n i k e h t f o n o s i h t f o s e i r a i c i f e n e b e r e w ? g n i o d y e h t e r a t a h W ? y t ? e e r t e h t t n u h n o n o i s n e t x e y b d n a , s t s a e b f s s e w o r p s s i h t g n i e e s m i h d r a g e , s l l a w y t i c y m e n e , s e l t t a b e s e h t n i m a r g n i r e t t a b , w o b m e h t d e t a e f e d t a e f g i b , k c a t t a o t d r a h , s n i e c a l a p e h t g n i t a s i h t g n i w o h s o t d e t a c i d e d m o o r y t i c e h t f o y t i e D n o r t a p e h t t h g i m , e n o r h t e h t o t e m o c e v a h s r e h t o n o t i d e m a l b s e i p a r t a S r o s e c n i v o r p ) E C B 5 6 4 - 5 8 4 ( s e r e X a i r y s s A e k t p y g E e k i l e g l u b s u r y p a P d n a e r u t c e t i h c r Wednesday, January 4, 2017 with carved reliefs, showing delegations of Elamites, Armenian, Royal Bodyguards, mirroring the visitors who were bringing gifts 
 -most ambitious and the invasion of Greece, c. 480 BCE 
 -few victories, captured and burned athens, then the tides turned 
 -Greeks fought back with great army and navy, battle of Saurdepon 
 -after Xerxes followed a number of weak kings, become a shadow of what it had really been 
 -Alexander enters and conquered easily, 
 Darius III (335-330 BCE) the last king of Persia 
 -then the area becomes Hellenized Monday, January 23rd 
 Archeological discoveries of the Early 19th century 
 How Archeology has been carried out in these places we've surveyed, look at techniques and their progression 
 -long process, slowly and laboriously peeling off layers of earth to expose the period they're looking for 
 -rarely uncover precious items like jewels and gold, mostly find mud brick walls, broken pieces of pottery, more mundane things 
 -work in the field is still exciting and ground breaking for understanding the past culture, not a treasure hunt 
 -earlier generations of archeologists in the near east have a lot of interesting stories, a bit more akin to movie depictions 
 -but of course a more academic side to early explorations, had to take a long voyage to get there, spent months if not years in your site 
 -also had a lot of hardships despite the exciting period they were digging in, previously knew nothing from these cultures 
 26 Wednesday, January 4, 2017 1700’s-1800’s 
 -very little was known about the civilizations of mesopotamia for the most part 
 -only have had a vague awareness of what had happened, knew a little about the lands from what they had read in the bible, which mentions cities like Nineveh or Babylon, or the histories of the ancient greeks 
 -to be sure, of the few Europeans who had visited this part, brought back stories of pure desolation of the landscapes, if there had been any past civilizations they've been turned to heaps of mud 
 -mesopotamia was undeveloped, under the ottoman empire with Iraq (didnt exist as a nation until 1920’s) 
 -Ottoman empire was a vast islamic state run by turkish rulers, capital in Constantinople 
 -by this time the empire was in decline, regions ruled by unexperienced corrupt officials, did little to keep good order or government 
 -despite these negative accounts by travelling Europeans, there were few who took times to look a little closer 
 -began to record art and monuments they saw 
 -Danish man Carsten Niebuhr travelled through mesopotamia and into Persia (Iran), interested in seeing ancient sites and was struck by sites like SW Persia ie. Persepolis, which he visited in 18th century 
 -he began to take copies of the cuneiform inscriptions covering the walls 
 -while many thought these strange engravings were simply decoration, Niebuhr believed it was an ancient language being conveyed that would unlock amazing information 
 James Buckingham 
 -made a visit through turkey, syria then mesopotamia around the year 1816 
 27 Wednesday, January 4, 2017 -went to the site of Aqar-Quf (Dur-Kurigalzu) 
 -grand tour was a popular thing for rich european socialites ,went to italy and maybe greece, only a special few went to the middle east 
 -he drew pictures and engravings of the sites he recorded 
 -drew remains of a brick tower at Aqar-Quf 
 -Borsippa: Site of Birs Nimrod, early travellers thought this was the Tower of Babel from the Bible, buckingham also did engravings of this, we know now it was a ziggurat constructed by the Cassites 
 -all engravings published in Travels in Mesopotamia 1827 
 Ker Porter: 
 -also travelled to the middle east 
 -a painter who married a russian princess, got money to travel wherever he wanted 
 -went to mesopotamia and Persia in 1817 
 -porter guessed this would have served as a temple and observatory to the stars, on the right track 
 -his own travels were published in 1822, 2 volume work Travels in Georgia, Perisa, Armenian, Ancient Babylonia 
 British Expedition of Euphrates 
 Another expedition conducted through water 
 -funded by british government 
 -objective to explore and map parts of syria and Iraq, 
 -explore the possibility that the rivers were navigable for steam boat travel 
 -some political and economic motivations for this 
 -this is before the construction of the Suez Canal in Egypt, were still looking for an alternative route to get to India 
 -they had two iron steamer ships brought over to a place on the coast 
 28 Wednesday, January 4, 2017 of Turkey
 -leader was Coronel Chesney 
 -all the parts for the steamer ships were disassembled and had to be taken in parts from the mediterranean ports over land to the euphrates, then it took another year to assemble the ships 
 -then finally started sailing 
 -the first part of the trip was going very well until about May in 1836 
 -by this time, they had gotten about as far as the Khabur river which is an off flow of the river, when they encountered an electrical storm with winds of hurricane force, 
 -one of the shops was capsized, 20 people killed, Chesney survived, knocked unconscious and woke up on the banks of the river 
 -decided to continue down the river with the remaining steamer, got down to the gulf 
 -then decided to head up the Tigris, got to the city of Bagdhad where steamers engines went out and lost all their funds 
 -decided neither river was good for boat travel, parts were too shallow, dangerous currents 
 -but the positive outcome is that Chesney had made several good maps of the river, members of team documented wealth of ancient ruins they saw on the banks 
 -took record of the botany and geology of the region 
 -with this expedition we have the first scientific investigation and maps of this region 
 -of course chesney wrote a book 
 Claudius James Rich 
 -probably contributed the most to the archeology of mesopotamia in this time 
 -came to Bagdhad as a british consul, a political appointment like an ambassador to the ottoman government in 1808 
 29 s a e r a e s e h t f o s r o t a v a c x e n a m r e g e m i t s i h t m r o f i e n u c h t i w s e n o t s s n o i t p i r c s n i e h l a u t n e v e n i d e d i a d n a m u e s u m h s Wednesday, January 4, 2017 
 Wednesday, January 25th 
 -Now in the 1840’s 
 Austen Henry Layard: 
 -englishmen responsible for interesting archeological achievements 
 -was on his was to to sri lanka, decided to go by land instead of the sea route around africa 
 -stopped in northern mesopotamia and became very interested in Antiquity, particularly in Nimrud, Nineveh, known for their Assyrian sites n the first millennium BCE 
 -was accompanied by another englishman who got as far as Mosul, but was not enjoying it and they parted ways 
 -decided to give up his job as a lawyer and pursue Archeological at Mosul, right across from the ancient mounds of Nineveh 
 -would go on to publish memoirs or his adventures 
 -talks about the ancient city at Nineveh, all encircled by the mounds of wall remains 
 -Nineveh was not the only ancient mound, also near to Khorsabad (ancient Dur-Sharrukin, named after sargon the second) 
 -Paul Botta discovered it and excavated it first in 1843, around the same time Layard took interest in the archaeology of the time 
 -was appointed as the consul in Mosul, had heard stories told by local people of incredible sculptured stones found by the villagers 
 -he tried his luck and digged into the mounds, and almost at once laid bare the tops of limestone slabs sculptured with assyrian figures 
 -discovered the palace of Sargon II 
 -the palace had been richly decorated with many rooms and corridors, relief carvings 
 -got a draftsperson to draw pictures of the reliefs 
 31 t a h t y t i r o h t u a n a m o t t O e h t m o r m e h t f o y n a d a e r o t w o h w e n k e n o Wednesday, January 4, 2017 -with this knowledge he could read the old persian section of this tri lingual inscription 
 -Rawlinson obtained squeezes of the Bisitun 
 -finished translation in early 1850’s, 1857 akkadian was totally understood to scholars 
 -Tablet collections from the libraries of the palace at Nineveh 
 -the flood tablet of the Gilgamesh Epic found (Tablet XI) 
 -found by George smith among the tablet fragments brought back to the british museum in 1872 Friday, January 27th 
 -Austen Henry Layard, excavator of Nimrud and Nineveh wrote a book in 1849 called Nineveh and its Remains 
 -he became famous at home, became a member of parliament 
 -a replacement was needed to carry on Layards work on behalf of the british museum 
 -found Hormuzd Rassam, a christian arab fro Mosul, right next to Nineveh, had worked as Layards second hand man, already knew about excavating 
 -he didn't leave a particularly great mark 
 -he was the one responsible for finding and excavating the palace of Ashurbanipal that had the beautiful wall reliefs of lion hunts representing the finest collection of Assyrian culture
 -difficult to be too praiseworthy of him due to his excavation methods 
 1853 the story of his work at Nineveh: 
 -the acropolis mound with main palaces was decided the french would take the north and british would take the south 
 -Rassam kept sending spies up to the french side, could see they were 
 34 e s e h t m i a l c o t d e w o l l a e r e w y e h e m i t e f i l s ’ g n i k e h t f o s n g e t a t s y t i c h s a g a L e h t p u e d a m y t i v e g n o l d n a y t Wednesday, January 4, 2017 -but upon leaving he never backfilled the statue, was smashed by locals 
 Sarzec also found a lot of Tablets 
 -this was something significant 
 -when he was away from the site more found out there were tablets which brought more illicit digging there 
 -40,000 tablets made their way to antiquity markets in Bagdad 
 British museum had caught wind that their Agents were not doing a good job of protecting antiquities 
 -sent a staff member to inspect the situation of Illicit digging 
 -Wallis Budge, an Assyriologist of the British Museum, 
 -found that the very guardians paid to look after the sites and prevent digging were the ones making the most money from the black market, 
 -Budge had no option but to buy back the tablets from the market 
 -applied to do excavations himself at Tell ed Der in 1890 
 -these are all babylonian era sites of 1800 BCE 
 -one of the local officials found out he was planning to dig there, and before a permit was issued the Ottoman did his own excavations, found 10,000 cuneiform tablets that were sold to the dealers in Bagdad 
 Current Looting: 
 -a lot of looting done in Umma since 2003, 
 -because of chaos of war guarded sites were abandoned 
 -covered in looter holes 
 What kinds of Developments mark the Archaeology of Mesopotamia from the time after Rich up to the end of the 1800’s 
 37 e h t h c i h w m o r f s g n i t t e s l a i c o s s e r u t c u r t s e g r a l g n i n n a l y h p a r g i t a r s l a p i c n i r p c i i b a r u m m a H g n i k E C B e m a c e b , E C B t n e c h t 6 n i r u s a n i k e b e N g n i k , e r i p m E Wednesday, January 4, 2017 every building was carefully planned 
 -and made sure local workmen were well trained to follow mudbrick, hard to do because mud brick is soft 
 -by the end of Koldewey’s excavations, they had a plan of the inner city of Babylon 
 -found ziggurat of Marduk and kings palace, could trace all of the rooms and courtyards carefully 
 -Different phases of construction in the Northwestern corner of Nebuchadnezzar’s palace, distinguishable by level, construction form and stamped bricks 
 -ability to discern this through time was remarkable 
 -also did good work around the Ishtar gate, 
 -when they first found it, could excavate right down to its foundations meters into the ground 
 -the gate went through many phases, only the upper phase had the blue glazed brick work 
 -collected all the glazed brick brought back in crates and over the years pieced it back together to recreate it 
 -had to trench deeply to get to the temple of Marduk 
 Place of the “Tower of Babel” , Babylon 
 -did a lot of excavations around the foundations 
 -were cuneiform texts that described what the tower looked like 
 -could reconstruct what it looked like (on a small scale) 
 Assyrian Site of Ashur: 
 -also excavated by germans between 1903-1914 
 -directed by Walter Andrae 
 -city had rose to prominence around 2000 BCE, became a major trading place 
 39 e a r d n a r e k l a W o t g n i k i l l a e r Wednesday, January 4, 2017 -her life in politics came to a peak after the first world war 
 -she was an expert on ancient sites and the modern people of that region, their political leanings 
 -in beginning of 1919 when it was decided how they would carve up the middle east, she was instrumental in drawing up the boundaries for the new nation of Iraq 
 -she was honorary director of Iraq antiquities service 
 Wednesday, February 1st 
 Two important things Gertrude bell did in relation to the antiquities of Iraq:
 -became director of Antiquities in Iraq at its creation 
 -Half the antiquities have to remain in Iraq/ country of Origin for the Iraq museum 
 -each team required to have a competent draftsperson, photographer to document finds, and an epigrapher 
 Later went on a dig at Ur funded by museum of Pennsylvania and British Museum 
 -was one of the most exciting ventures due to discovery of unique treasures 
 -know site was occupied during ED period of the Sumerian dynasty 
 -around 2100 BCE it became the capital of the UR III Dynasty 
 -Director of Excavations was Leonard Woolley, was knighted for his achievements at this site 
 -while working, he focused on the great Ziggurat of Ur-Nammu 
 -dating back to the Ur III period 
 -also site of Royal cemetery 
 -while he was excavating the buildings and the walls he came across a 
 41 , e d i s e h t o t f f o n e m o w s d o o g e v a r g , s e i d o b r e h r e b m a h c l a i r u b l a n o s r e p e f i l t x e n e h t n i r e h e v r e s o t l l u b g n i w o k c i r b d u m e l g n i s y r e v e d o o t s r e d n u t s o m , n a i t p y g e y r e v s k o o e s o l c n i e r e w o h w n e m s g n i t a c i d n i , e r t n e c e h t n i n o s b m o t d e t l u a v s g n i r r a e , s , r e t a w f o w o l f e h t d e t a l u g e r d e i f i Wednesday, January 4, 2017 layout and whats going on around the sites 
 -they are more helpful than recent ones because modern farming hadn't taken place in those images, some landscapes still the same as they were thousands of years before 
 Corona image of third Millennium BCE site in North-Eastern Syria 
 -guessing these lines were actually roadways leading from houses in the city to their fields or passes, ones used on a daily basis 
 -some areas particularly in NE Syria, have detected several of these radiating patterns associated with sites especially in the early bronze age 
 -these roadways can tell us about ancient settlements and the economies of these cities 
 -can see lines from sites connecting big sites, connecting trading, communication, knowledge of their existence 
 -not entirely autonomous, looking in 
 -they need agricultural development around the city to sustain it 
 -think of the number or size of area around a settlement that was put under cultivation 
 -we can find out about what people were eating and growing by collecting the carbonized botanical remains 
 Work has been done by Jason Ur, 
 -Corona Image of Nimrud shows the palace of Asirnasurpal and For Shalmaneser, 
 -Everything else is buried still under the ground 
 -ISIS only destroyed the Palace 
 -satellite image has picked up crop marks, white and dark patchy areas caused by water retention, 
 -mud brick under the soil tends to absorb moisture, might be reflecting places of structures 
 46 s k r o W n a i t s i r h C y l r a e r e h t o f e h t f o g n i n n i g e b e h t o t k c a b , e l r i e h t d n a l e a r s I f o e l p o e p , s u o i g i l e r y l p e e d e r e w s n o
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