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PHIL 102 Lecture Notes - If And Only If

Course Code
PHIL 102
Dominic Mc Iver Lopes

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example exam question: What does Ted Cohen consider consistency to be?
-reasons are consistent when they follow the same aesthetic principle
solution to a philosophical problem is a theory
!-an answer to a certain type of question
!-theory answers ‘what is..?’
!-don’t want a list, but a definition
!-eg. what is flirting?
!!-an attempt to attract someone
!!-flirting is playful, while stalking isn’t
!!-(dictionary): playfully amorous behaviour
!!!-but there’s more to it than that
!!-philosopher carrie says that S flirts with R iff (if and only if):
!!!(1) S does things disposed to raise to salience S-R romance and/or
!!!sex in R
!!!(2) in a knowing yet playful manner
!!!(3) and S believes R can respond
A only if B
if A, B
a good theory stands up to counterexamples
two kinds of counterexamples:
!-the kind that prompts one of the things has to be changed
!-the kind that has all the things, but isn’t the thing
(2) does the person really have to know that they are flirting?
(1) what about old married couple? they can’t bring up romance or sex
is pretending to flirt really flirting?
reword as (2) in a knowing yet intentionally playful manner
reword (3) as S believes R can respond by returning flirting
!-but this is too narrow, the person can slap them back
don’t usually ask ‘what is..?’ for an answer, but for further illumination
-eg. we don’t really care about the definition of flirting, we know what it is when we see
it, but we want to know further (eg. difference between flirting and seduction, is it
-fact to be explained (explanandum)
-theory explains it (explanans)
-the best explanation of P is T (there should be other explanations to compare against,
but this isn’t always true)
-therefore T is true
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