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Lecture

Martha Nussbaum Prostitution

5 Pages
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Department
Philosophy
Course Code
PHIL 102
Professor
All

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PHIL 102 – March 3 2014 Applied Ethics – Analogies in Ethics Norms secure consistency in action Reason to action (applied ethics) How do we determine what norm applied to some facts? • Derive it from a general moral theory (Utilitarianism/Kantian) • Compare to clear cases via arguments by analogy (Peter Singer) – contemporary applied ethics. Deductive Argument • You’re obliged by logic to follow the conclusion Abductive Argument (To the best explanation) • More common in philosophy Analogical Argument • Begin with a clear case (A) – we have an action/situation with certain features. • There is a moral feature (Q) related to it (A) • Controversial case is analogous to the clear case (A) • So B has the moral feature (Q) 1. Clear case A and B share the same features P1… Pi 2. P1… Pi are morally relevant features 3. A has moral feature Q 4. Therefore, B has moral feature Q A is a clear case P1… Pi have to be relevant for Q there must be no relevant difference! Problems: • 2 ways: o Question the clear case o Question the analogy PHIL 102 – March 3 2014 • Haven’t identified all the differences, by leaving it out you fail to make a strong argument. o Must have the same features for it to be a strong analogy. • The challenge is to get all the relevant facts about the controversial case MARTHA NUSSBAUM - Prostitution • Very logical and uses facts – Aristotelian • University of Chicago • Ancient Greek Philosophy (before) – Aristotle (points to the ground) • “Love’s Knowledge” – novel gives you richly textured details of lives thus gaining moral ideas. Commercial Recreational Sex • In reality, nowadays, most places the sex trade is associated with many harms a. Child prostitution b. Abduction, slavery, autonomy, violent coercion, drug addiction, emotional manipulation. c. Duress: a last resort – many sex trade workers have no better alternative i. Joseph Raz’s “hounded woman”: her actions are not free in all important ways. 1. Imagine yourself stranded on a desert island, not great to be far from civilization, but it’s ok 2. There is a lion – it hounds you. You can choose where to run away etc. but it is constantly hounding you. 3. In one sense you are free, but there is little choice you have. Not really free. ii. Many sex trade workers – it’s similar to that situation. iii. They are not exercising free choice; they are stuck in a certain circumstance. iv. But there is some autonomy there – she chose to be there? • None of these is a necessary consequence of “commercial recreational sex” PHIL 102 – March 3 2014 • Policy: what can we do to prevent/minimize these harms? o Does the Criminal Code do anything to remedy (C - duress)  It is illegal to: • “Keeping a bawdy house” – whore house • “Communicating in public” – finding people who wants the services in public • “Living on the avails” – generating an income on the activity • But not sex for money  AG v. Bedfrod Lebovitch, and Scott (Dec 2013): “Parliament has the power to regulate agai
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