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Psychology Study Guide.docx

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University of British Columbia
PSYC 101
Peter Graf

Psychology Study Guide Chapter 1Distinguishing between behavior and interpretation oFor clarity cultural reasons victory sign science depends on operational definitionPsychology comes from o Psyche soul spirit mind logos study of a subjectstudy of the mind o Psychology rooted fromphilosophy and physiologyWilhelm Wundt o Mounted a campaign to make psychology an independent discipline rather than the child of physiology and philosophy o In 1879 established his first laboratory dedicated to psychology o Established that psychology should become a sciencewith the study of conscious experience as its subjectG Stanley Hall o Established Americas first research lab in psychology o Laughed Americas first psychology journal o Established the American Psychological Association APAStructuralism Wilhelm Wundt o Based on the notion that the task of psychology is to analyze consciousness into its basic elements and investigate how these elements are relatedo Analyze the fundamental components of conscious experience Ie sensations feelings images o Most work concerned sensations and perception in vision hearing and touch o Introspection the careful systematic self observation of ones own conscious experienceRequired training to make the individual more objective and awareAfter individual exposes to auditory tones optical illusions and visual stimula and asked to analyze what they experiencedLimitation no independent objective evaluation of that claimFunctionalism William James o Based on the belief that psychology should investigate the function or purpose of consciousness rather than structure o Natural selection heritable characteristics that provide a survival or reproductive advantagepassed onto the next generation and thus come to be selected over time o Interested in the way people adapted their behavior to the demands of the world around them o Consciousnesscontinuous flow of thoughts and functionalists wanted to study the flow o Investigated mental testing development in children effectiveness of educational practices behavioral differences bw sexes Sigmund Freud o Brought up the study of the unconscious o Psychoanalysishis medical practices treated people with problems such as irrational fears o His study with patients lead toexistence of the unconsciousContained thoughts memories and desires that are well below the surface of conscious awareness but exert great influence on behavior o His psychoanalytic theory attempts to explain personality motivation and mental disorders by focusing on unconscious determinants of behavior o Human mind composed of 3 elementsID composed of primal Ego component of personality that are charged with dealing with realitySuperego the part of our personality that deals with the values and ideals charged by our parents and culture o Proposed that the interaction of all three elements led to all the complex human behaviorsBehaviorism John B Watson o The theoretical orientation based on the premise that scientific psychology should study only observable behavioro Scientific methodverifiabilityonly verified by anyone who is able to make observations o Mental processes not scientific because they were private events o If psychology were a science then it would abandon consciousnessscience of behavior o Refers to any overt observable response or activity by an organism o Study what people do or say but not how they feel wish thought o Started debate over nature vs nurture Behaviorism downplayed heredity and maintained that behavior is governed by the environment o Stimulus is any detectable input from the environment o Approachstimulusresponse SR psychology o BF Skinnerlaws of behaviorEnvironmental factors determine behavior Responses that lead to positive outcomes are repeatedResponses hat lead to negative outcomes are not repeated o Free will is an illusionHumanism o Theory that humans are unique and their freedom and potential for personal growth is limitless o Reaction to behaviorism and psychoanalysis that emphasized individuals uniqueness and potentials and stress importance of growth and selfactualization o Research on animalsUSELESShumans are fundamentally different from other animalsCognitivism o Core focus is on internal mental states one how people acquire process and store information o Cognitive neuroscience is concerned with the scientific study of biological substrates underlying behavior and the mind with a specific focus on their neural substrates o Focuses on question about how behavior and psychologicalcognitive functions are produced by brain processesBiologism o Concerned with the integration of mind body and behaviorKey terms o Expectation problemOur expectations tend to determine the way we perceive and interpret things o Confirmation biasWe tend to seek out info that confirms our speculations and ignore the information that rejects our theories o Limited data problemWe make conclusions and jump to conclusions using the limited amount of data we haveBehaviors are affected by o Dispositional vs situationalSituationalexternal factorsenvironmental or earthquakes hitting your houseDispositionalpersonalinternal factors and impactsdomestic violence o Immediate vs remote o Biological vs cognitiveCHAPTER 2Goals of research o MeasurementdescriptionMeasurementAct of making observationsnumbers labelsDescriptions need to be systematic and complete
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