Sept 21, 2011
Brain vs. Mind? Are they the same thing?
Ways and Means of Psychology
Goals of Psychology – Describe, Predict, Explain, and Change Behaviour
Science and Theories – Science can never be proven, don’t have to be scientific, don’t have to be true to
Scientific Theories in Psychology:
What is a theory? – must make predictions that can be tested
Common Sense and Science
- “Everyone knows…”
- The ongoing nature of science – ideas build on each other, slow incremental increase in
Science vs. Common Sense
Objective data collection vs. Subjective data collection
Systematic observation vs. Hit or miss observation
Reliance on evidence vs. Ignores counterevidence
What about belief?
- You can believe anything you want, sensible or not
- Belief is very personal – why should I believe you?
- You cannot make anyone believe anything
- Only evidence can settle belief disputes
*info interpreted through beliefs
- Specific truths are deduced from general truths. (i.e. grass is green, It’s warm outside)
- General truths are induced from specific truths. (i.e. It must be summer, etc.)
Science & Proof
A deduction is proven if the general premise is true and the logic is valid.
An induction goes beyond the known data, and thus can never be proven.
Science, then does not prove things, because all information about the outside observable world is
- Hypothesis – a possible way things could be, a tentative cause and effect relation
- Theory – an explanation for the way things are, usually supported by a lot of data which
provides testable hypotheses.
Advantages of science:
- Scientific methods are deductive
- Science is more systematic, and less subject to human bias
- Fit to the data