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Lecture

PSYC 208 - Lecture Template - Ch. 8 (3 of 3).docx

7 Pages
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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYC 208
Professor
Maria Weatherby

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III. Discipline, Spanking and Abuse (Ch. 8 – 3 of 3) __________________________________________________________________________________ A. Clarifying Key Terms 1. Punishment versus discipline Definition of Discipline: The Canadian Pediatric Society (2004) describes discipline as follows: The word discipline means to impart knowledge and skill – to teach. However, it is often equated with punishment and control. There is a great deal of controversy about the appropriate ways to discipline children, and parents are often confused about effective ways to set limits and instill self-control in their child. [The goal of] effective and positive discipline is related to teaching and guiding children, not just forcing them to obey (p. 214 of the textbook). Different methods (different for different parents): - Reinforcement (positive discipline) - Reasoning (inductive discipline) - Punishment - Spanking, physical punishment - Proactive discipline (preventative) Definition of Punishment: a consequence that causes an individual’s behavior to occur with less frequency. 2. Parenting styles versus parenting practices Darling and Steinberg (1993) make the following distinction: Parenting style - a constellation of attitudes, beliefs, and values about the goals of discipline and the nature of children (i.e., how best to motivate children or perceptions of what is in the best interests for children). Discipline ends refers to … parenting goals or outcomes (Ex. some parents may want their children do something above something else like listen; may not be a universally shared goal)  different societies value different things Parenting practices - specific behaviours used by parents to help them obtain desired parenting goals. For example: spanking versus time-out versus reasoning. Discipline means refers to…. Discipline methods (punishment, reinforcement, spanking, reasoning, discussion, encouragement, ridiculing, putting someone down, making them feel inferior)  methods parent use to get their objective; sometimes parents will shame children (conditional love; love is the reward if you’re good, if you’re bad, they take it away) - People can be motivated by different things (security, encouragement, fear) - In some societies, children are believed to have less rights while some have more rights B. Parenting Styles: Diana Baumrind (1972) 1 Below are four dimensions, which clarify the key differences between parenting styles identified by Baumrind. 1. Level of warmth and responsiveness – - How best to motivate people (fear vs. security) - E.g. perception of manager (have lunch with you, etc) - Stemming from things like attachment parenting - Belief that security is a better foundation than fear/unresponsive/cold parenting 2. Level of clarity and consistency – - Set clear rules? - Set clear consequences (if rules are broken)? - Follow through consistently with consequences? 3. Level of maturity demands – - Standards and expectations for children at certain ages (e.g. toilet trained at 2, etc) - Conflicts with promotion of self-esteem (e.g. lowering standards for achievement) - Do parents have high expectations or standards for the child?  Big issue in US  school system has adopted a self-esteem model; if a child is not able to meet certain standards, then they just lower the standards (the idea that they don’t want to fail any children and they don’t want their self-esteem to be harmed 4. Level of communication - - 2 way communication (negotiation, joint decision making) - Democratic vs. autocratic - Rights for children (different country, different rights) - Amount of 2 way communication between parents and children (Ex. discussion, negotiating, bargaining  allows child to be articulate and a critical thinking and not just to listen to demands)  Cultural and developmental differences, philosophy, what is right/wrong Based on whether parents demonstrate high or low levels along the four dimensions above, Diana Baumrind (1972) identified three distinct parenting styles: Three Types: 1. Authoritarian – low, high, high, low 2. Authoritative – high, high, high, high 3. Permissive – high, low, low, low Brief Review of Parenting Styles Literature: - In NorthAmerica, authoritative (combination of “authorit” and “sive”) is associated with the best child outcomes – o cognitive outcome o social (well-liked, perceptive taking, empathy) o emotional development (delay impulses, self-regulate) o mental health/self development (suicide, anxiety, high self-esteem, self-efficacy) - In Mainland China (not HK), authoritarian  cognitive outcomes 2 C. Parenting Practices (Specific Behaviours or Methods of Disciplining) 1. Canada’s National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth (NLSCY) Parenting Practices investigated in the NLSCY:  http://www.statcan.gc.ca/cgibin/imdb/p2SV.pl? Function=getSurvey&SurvId=4450&SurvVer=1&InstaId=16044&InstaVer=4&SDDS=4450&lang=en&db =imdb&adm=8&dis=2 a) Frequency of hostile parent-child interactions Specific behaviours include: - Sarcasm - Ridicule - Degrade (put down) - Humiliate - Mixing anger with punishment - Conditional love (give or take away as consequence) Sample Survey Items: • How often do you tell this child that he or she is bad or not as good as others? • How often do you and your child stay angry for a very long time after you fight? • How often do you and your adolescent refuse to talk to each other after a fight? b) Frequency of punitive parent-child interactions – specific behaviours include: - Proportion of punishment – relative to all discipline strategies - Frequency of physical punishment (spanking) c) Frequency of consistency in parent-child interactions (Baumrind’s 2 dimension) Specific behaviours include: - Clear rules - Clear consequences - Consistent follow-through Sample Survey Items: • How often is this child able to get out of a punishment when he or she really sets his or her mind to it? • If there is a parenting decision to be made (for example: set rules), how often do you and your spouse agree? d) Frequency of positive parent-child interactions Specific behaviours include: 3 - Frequency of laughter (how often you laugh with your parents), fun - Enjoying shared leisure time (could be things like playing card games/board games, playing sports, going to see a movie) Sample Survey Items: • How often do you and this child talk or play with each other, focusing attention on each other for five minutes or more, just for fun? • How often do you play sports, hobbies or games with this child? 2. ABrief Review of the NLSCY Research Findings a) The dimension associated with the most negative effects on children is hostility b) Positive parenting is a protective factor against the negative outcomes typically associated with the effects of …poverty (low income) Family’s income  +ve  child outcomes c) Consistent parenting is a protective factor against the negative outcomes typically associated with the effects of… aggression/hyperactivity in children (ex. children that don’t have good impulse control) 3. Correlates of Spanking (Effects of Corporal Punishment) Elizabeth Gershoff (2002) conducted a meta-analysis that summarized the results of 88 studies on spanking or corporal punishment (Note: The full reference is listed in the bibliography of your textbook). a) Review of the findings from Gershoff’s meta-analysis i) Parental use of spanking is significantly correlated with the following outcomes in children: • Parental use of spanking Immediate child compliance • Parental use of spankin Moral internalization in children • Parental use of spankin Childhood aggression • Parental use of spankin High qua
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