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psyc 302 motor development.docx

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PSYC 302
Kiley J Hamlin

psyc 302 motor development human development is much slower than other animals WHY SO SLOW? our heads/ cortex have gotten bigger and bigger, at the same time the pelvis has gotten smaller and smaller; given our giant heads and small pelvis we have to give birth at 36 weeks if we werent born so immature we wouldnt be suscepticle to these experiences MAJOR MOTOR MILESTONES has to do with muscles getting stronger THE START: NEWBORNS NOT CAPABLE OF MUCH bUT THEY HAVE IMPRESSIVE REFLEXES patellar reflex: hit your knee and you kick leg babinsky reflex: you stroke babies foot and they move their foot and toes grasping reflex: stroke hands and they grasp you rooting reflex: you touch their cheek and theyturn to feed stepping relfex: newborn will lift their legs if you hold them up diving reflex: if you throw a baby in water they will hold their breath moro reflex: reflex when we all feel when we dream we are falling; if you place a newborn on your arm and "drop" them their arms will shoot out grasping reflex: newborns can grasp something and have enough grip strength at birth to hold their whole body weight WHYTHESE REFLEXES? helpful to baby now helpful to future development not helpful at all, only there because of ancestors REFLEXES DISAPPEARAFTER AFEW MONTHS--U SHAPED CURVES this could happen because: 1. they are two different systems: newborn relies on low level, crude reflex and eventually when cortex develops more it takes over 2. the stuff that is happening in the beginning is the same as what is happenng later; peripheral factors make them disappear (stepping reflex goes away because of weight of legs) HOW DOES MOTOR DEVELOPMENT OCCUR? you can give babies very different experience and they end up with the same developments=maturation twin studies=give one twin lots of experience playing around stairs and keep the other one away from stairs and found that both twins started stair climbing at the same time many non westers societies which keep their children quite contained (to keep them safe); babies in these situations have almost no motor delays HOW DOES MOTOR DEVELOPMENT OCCUR romanian orphans=despite these delays motor development was the most reversible of the delays and turned back to normal west african's exercise their babies in order to progress motor development through shaking them by their wrist and stretching them to help physical development DYNAMIC SYSTEMS THEORY there are systems of development that might look like one process, but what would allow a particular skill to emerge is the maturation of other systems systems are all developing together and if you talk about one thing without including the other processes you wont get the full picture EYE-HEAD MOVEMENTS smooth-pursuit: tracking a moving object smoothly to the object-off the object-to the object-off the object=saccades once you get smooth pursuit when you head is straight then your head movement and your eye gazing have to work together in order to follow objects REACHING we used to think that reahing started with lots of flapping and randomy coming across objects in space and then learning to associate the movements with reaching objects now we think that babies are able to reach and understand, but just arent good at it and they get better at putting hand towards an object in space over time emergence of the reaching system is dynamic with posture in a dark room infants reaches look the same; infants hear a noise and try to find/reach it while in the dark in the 1st year infants are already reaching for different sized objects in different ways and they adjust the way they pick it up for w
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