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Psychology 320 Lecture17.docx

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PSYC 320
Sunaina Assanand

Psychology 320 Lecture17 5. what biological theories have been proposed to explain sex differences (cont.)? 6. Twin studies: the best way we can examine biological traits in behaviour Monozygotic= identical twins (come from one egg). Have the exact same genes Dizigotic= fraternal twins (come from two eggs). Have 50% same genes It is thought that the environments are the same for all twins (mono and di) Example 1. Lippa and Hershberger Analyzed same sex twins on traits thought to be attributed to masculinity and femininity. Participants were asked to complete an adjective checklist, occupational interests, and the frequency of everyday activities (all of these components representing gender characteristics for females and males) They found that heritability stat in masculine instrumentality was: 36% attributed to genetics, and the rest is attributed to environment Feminine expressiveness: 38% variance attributed to genetics Gender Diagnosticity (occupational preferences, everyday activities): 53% genetics Gender Diagnosticity: indicative of how people conform to gender roles/ characteristics 8. Example 2. Genetic Atypicalities Klinefelter syndrome: an individual who is male has an extra X chromosome (XXY) A random sperm or egg has 2 sex chromosomes involving at least one X People with this syndrome have male internal and external genitalia They have smaller testes and penis, underdeveloped muscles (as babies they tend to sit up, crawl and walk later), rounded body type (body shape more feminine thought to be due to less testosterone- wide hips), atypical body proportions, gynocomastia (high amounts of breast tissue), language learning impairments (tend to have above average IQ’s, but issues with learning re
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