SOCI 100 Lecture Notes - Lecture 7: Institute Of Historical Research, Hawthorne Effect

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Published on 18 Apr 2013
School
UBC
Department
Sociology
Course
SOCI 100
Quantitative and Qualitative Methods
Quantitative Research Methods
Durkheim: methods of natural science used for social science research
Methods involve:
Counting and precise measurement of observable behaviour
Generate/Collect Data
Make predictions
Experiment
**Testing a hypothesis**
1. ‘best’ kind of ‘science’
2. Test statement of possible relationship between 2 or more variables.
3. Manipulate causes to determine effects
4. Highly controlled environment
5. Ethical problems
6. Hawthorne Effect: When people know being studied, change behaviour
Survey Research
**Asking questions**
1. Respondents answer statements or questions
2. Methodological tool: Questionnaire or interview
3. Useful for studying what cannot be observed directly
4. Obtain data from a “representative” population
Sampling
1. A subset of individuals from a population to be studied
2. Representative
3. Conclusions not generalized beyond population studied
Types of Samples
1. Random: Choose by chance from total population
2. Cluster: Sampling within sub-units
3. Quota: Conscious matching of sample to same proportions in total population
4. Accidental/Convenience: Choose who have at hand
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Document Summary

Durkheim: methods of natural science used for social science research. Counting and precise measurement of observable behaviour. Best" kind of science": test statement of possible relationship between 2 or more variables, manipulate causes to determine effects, highly controlled environment, ethical problems, hawthorne effect: when people know being studied, change behaviour. **asking questions*: respondents answer statements or questions, methodological tool: questionnaire or interview, useful for studying what cannot be observed directly, obtain data from a representative population. Sampling: a subset of individuals from a population to be studied, representative, conclusions not generalized beyond population studied. Used to describe/interpret recorded or visual messages. Primary: produced at the time (eyewitness accounts, diaries, official documents) Secondary: individuals reporting what primary source said. Weber sociology should not use methods of sciences. Sociologists need to understand behaviour not just predict. Real behaviour observed not reports of behaviour. Associations among variables sought instead of causes. Researcher systemically observes people while joining in their routine activities.

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