Class Notes (887,227)
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COMM 251 (1)
Alex Ng (1)


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COMM 251
Alex Ng

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NOTES FOR MANAGEMENT MIDTERM #2 Orgs are growing (or shrinking) and are struggling with effectiveness. Org needs to stay relevant to the needs of the field. Political context and funding patterns are always changing.  Organizational Development: “is a system wide application of behavioral science knowledge to the planned development and reinforcement of organizational strategies, structures, and processes for improving an organization’s effectiveness” - Process includes: the self assessment, the peer review and the environmental scan (SWOT analysis) leads to identifying the changes that need to take place and how the changes will be implemented (by whom, by when, how) - External Alignment: does the org adhere to national/international standards in the way it operates? Are the requirements being met? o Adherence to the Code of Conduct: 10 principles of the Code of Conduct: 1) The humanitarian imperative comes first, 2) Aid is given regardless of the race, creed or nationality, aid priorities are calculated on the basis of need alone, 3) we shall respect culture and custom, 4) Relief aid must strive to reduce future vulnerabilities to disasters, 5) we shall recognize disaster victims as dignified humans, not hopeless objects o Adherence to the key values, Evaluation by other agencies, Policies and practices, Governance, Quality and Performance, Self Review Process - Internal Assessment: o Peer review process: An external “team” of peers take a look at the self assessment and provide their perspectives, feedback and input. Identify an action plan for change. (ONLY big well funded agencies can afford to make this a formal process on a regular basis, in smaller agencies it is an informal process) o Self-Review: (focus groups, surveys, in-depth interviews) 5 Q’s (What is our missions, who is our customer, what does the customer values, what are our results, what is our plan, where are we now, where should we be/where do we want to be?) Often conducted in the senior management level. Everything is done for the donor  After self-peer review use SWOT analysis to make changes o Detailed Internal Assessment: (done on a broader level including most employees) Aspirations, Strategy, Organizational Skills, Human Resources, Systems and Infrastructure, Organizational Structure and Culture (“family” type of culture doesn’t work within big organizations over 70 ppl)  Why is change important in International Development? Change is constant, change in locations, change in staff, change in funding, change in politics/economics o Participatory process of change: ownership of the change MEETINGS - Before a meeting: arrange room, set time, create a detailed agenda - Plan meetings in advance, pre-notify attendees about what will be discussed (the goals), control the discussion, summarize and record discussions - VIDEO: “MEETINGS BLOODY MEETINGS” with John Cleese o 1) Plan: Don’t waste time. Have an agenda. What was the meeting intended to achieve. Prepare yourself what the meeting is for. o 2) Inform: make it clear to everybody. Everyone has to be on the same page. Make sure everyone knows what you want from the meeting o 3) Prepare: the time allocation and place o 4) Structure and control: discussions should have structure. Structure discussions in stages (keep the stages separate). Stop having people going back and forth. Make discussions step by step (on topic after the other) o 5) Summarize the record: failure to record discussions is a problem - What if you are not in control of the meeting? o Get minutes of previous meeting to determine if it is worth your time attending (if meetings aren’t being taken-suggest that they are) o Ask for a copy of the agenda prior to attending o Set your own expectations for meetings o Accept that contacts are often the most important part of a meeting o Some meetings you must attend: security, donor Burnout is described as “a syndrome of emotional exhaustion and cynicism that occurs frequently among individuals who do ‘people work’ of some kind. What causes Burnout?  Direct exposure to death and trauma  Quantity of work (hours in excess of a normal 40 hour work week)  Physical and Social Isolation  Inability to control immediate environment  Fear for personal safety  Need to make life-altering decisions for others Symptoms can be physical, emotional, behavioural or attitudinal ◦ Headaches, intestinal problems or difficulty sleeping. ◦ Emotional symptoms may include anger, frustration or extreme over or under reaction to events. ◦ Poor performance coupled with increased risk taking behaviour and an unwillingness to take time off. ◦ Cynicism towards their organization or line of work and distrust of those around them. Elements of Leadership: Leadership style: • How does leader treat staff? • How are decisions are made and communicated? How are staff motivated, assisted, and rewarded? Moral leadership • How does the leader act, inspire staff, create sense of vision, transmit own personality and vision and values? Management skill • Practical abilities needed to organize and carry out programs, policies, and activities Strategic Planning??  “Strategic planning is not an end in itself, but merely a set of concepts to help leaders make important decisions and take important actions.” (p.46)  Strategic plans should lead to actions, results and evaluation (p. 48 )  Strategic planning is a PROCESS that identifies what an agency will do
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