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Lecture 3

PSYC1003 Lecture Notes - Lecture 3: Lightdark, Psycinfo, Temporal Lobe

8 pages97 viewsFall 2016

Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYC1003
Professor
Dr.Harald Taukulis
Lecture
3

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1. Achievement Motive: Need to master difficult challenges, to
out perform others, and to meet high standards of
excellence
2. Achievement tests: Gauge a persons' mastery and knowledge
of various subjects
3. Affective forecasting: Efforts to predict one's emotional
reaction to future events
4. Affiliating motive: Need to associate with other and maintain
social bonds
5. Alfred Binet: Invented the first practical IQ test. Used mental
age and measured reasoning skills
6. All 200 of these applicants are hired and put to work selling
computers, After six months, Professor Sam correlates the
new workers' aptitude test scores with the dollar value of
the computers that each sold during the first six months on
the job. This correlation turns out to by -0.21. This finding
suggests the test may lack_________: Criterion-related validity
7. Anecdotal evidence: Consists of personal stories about
specific incidents and experiences
8. Aptitude test: Asses specific types of mental abilities
9. Argument: Consists of one or more premises that are used to
provide support for a conclusion
10. Arthur Jensen: Intelligence is largely genetic in origin and
therefore genetic factors are strongly implicated as the
cause of ethnic differences in intelligence
11. Assumptions: Premises for which no proof or evidence is
offered
12. At the request of the HiTechnol and computer store chain,
Professor Sam develops a test to measure aptitude for
selling computers. Two hundred applicants for sales hobs at
HiTechnol and stores are asked to take the test on two
occasions, a few weeks apart. A correlation of +0.82 is
found between applicants's scores on the two
administrations of the test. Thus, the test appears to possess
reasonable_________: Test-retest reliability
13. At which step of the research process did researchers create
operational definitions for their variables?: Step 1: Formulate
a testable hypothesis
14. Back at the university, Professor Sam is teaching a course in
theories of personality. He decides to use the same midterm
exam that he gave last year even though the exam includes
questions about theorists that he did not cover or assign
reading on this year. There are reasons to doubt the
____________ of Professor Sams midterm exam: Content
Validity
15. Behavioural Component of Emotions: People can accurately
and quickly discern emotions from facial expressions
16. Between subjects design: Each participant is in only one
condition
17. Binet and Simon: Focused on assessing children and
identifying mentally subnormal ones
Used abstract reasoning skills
Used mental age to say if a child was average, advanced or
retarded
18. Biological correlates of intelligence: Research indicates that
both white and grey matter in the brain are important in
determining intelligence. New research also indicates that
gyrification is positively correlated with intelligence
19. Bisexual: Likes members of either sex
20. Body Mass Index BMI: An individual's weight (in kilograms)
divided by height (in meters) sqared
21. Brain and behavioural component: Neural correlates of
emotions measure brain activity. They found a baseline array
of brain areas active in neutral face processing (fusiform
gyrus) but additional areas active in response to non-neutral
emotions
22. Cannon-Bard: Stimulus>Subcortical brain activity > conscious
feeling+Autonomic arousal (simultaneously)
Thalamus sends info in two directions simultaneously to the
cortex and amygdala
23. Can sight and smell of food affect appetite: When you see
or smell food your insulin levels can rise
24. Case study: An in depth investigation of an individual subject
25. CCK: is secreted by the intestine and acts on the
hypothalamus to decrease hunger/food intake
26. Choice: Is often kept in check by their associated costs which
are also what makes them good indicators
27. Claude Steele: Feelings of stereotypes vulnerability can
undermine group members' performance on tests, as well as
other measures of academic achievement
28. Cognitive Component of Emotion: We evaluate our emotions
and try to predict them; affective forecasting
29. Commonsense theory of emotion: Stimulus>conscious
feeling>autonomic arousal
30. Compensatory responses: the body's attempt to regain
homeostasis in drug users
31. Competition: In most cases there is competition by males and
selection by females
Female choice is often based on appearance
32. Confounding variable: Occurs when two variables are linked
together in a way that makes it difficult to sort out their
specific effects
33. Construct validity: The extent to which there is evidence that
a test measures a particular hypothetical construct
34. Construct validity: Does the test measure a particular
hypothetical construct
35. Content Validity: Does the content represent the overall
domain being tested
36. Content validity: The degree to which the content of a test is
representative of the domain it's supposed to cover
37. Control Group: Consists of similar subjects who do not
receive the special treatment given to the experimental
group
Psychology 1004 Test 1
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60. Differences in emotions across countries: The recognition of
emotions is pretty consistent but not quite universal due to
differences in display norms
61. Display rules: Norms that regulate the appropriate expression
of emotion
62. Divergent thinking: One tries to expand the range of
alternatives by generating many possible solutions
63. Does being around people influence appetite?: Yes. The
amount consumed was highly correlated in females and
mixed pairs but not males
64. Does brain size determine intelligence?: Overall there is a
correlation of 0.33 between brain volume and intelligence
65. Does environmental factors affect IQ?: Some adoption
studies say yes because those who were adopted performed
better then their siblings who were not adopted
66. Does IQ predict career success?: Yes but the predictive
power is moderate at 0.37, similar to that of grades and
parents socioeconomic status
67. Do IQ tests have reliability?: If there is a high correlation
then yes
68. Do IQ tests have validity?: Depends on what you think IQ is
good for
IQ tests have good construct validity (test matches up to
other tests in terms of peoples answers)
There is criterion validity in regards to high IQ and academic
performance
Content validity- do IQ test test comprehensively?
69. Double-Blind Procedure: Research strategy in which neither
subjects nor experimenters know which subjects are in the
experimental or control groups
70. Drive: An internal state of tension that motivates an organism
to engage in activities that should reduce this tension
71. Ellen Winner: Moderately gifted children are very different
from profoundly gifted children as those who are profoundly
gifted are introverted and socially isolated
72. Emotional disorders: Research has shown that people with
emotional disorders like depression or PTSD have excessive
amygdala activity as regulated by the prefrontal cortex ->
Over reactivity
73. Emotional Intelligence: Consists of the ability to perceive and
express emotion, assimilate emotion in thought, understand
and reason with emotion, and regulate emotion
74. Emotions: Involves a subjective conscious experience (the
cognitive component) accompanied by bodily arousal (the
physiological component) and characteristic overt
expressions (the behavioural component)
75. Environment factors that influence hunger: Amount of food
in front of us: High correlation between the amount served
and the amount consumed
We seem to focus on units more so than total qualities
The more variety of food in front of us the more we consume
(think of a buffet vs porridge)
38. Control Group: Consists of similar subjects who receive some
special treatment in regard to the independent variable
39. Convergent thinking: One tries to narrow down a list of
alternatives to converge on a single correct answer. Inside
the box thinking
40. Conversion Therapy: Psychological technique (shocking/talk
therapy) to be trained to get rid of the homosexuality
tendencies
41. Correlation: Exists when two variables are related to each
other
42. Correlation: Is most often represented by the correlation
coefficient r that ranges from -1 to 1
43. Correlation Coefficient: A numerical index of the degree of
relationship between two variables
44. Correlation coefficient: A numerical index of the degree of
relationship between two variables
45. Creativity: Involves the generation of ideas that are original,
novel, and useful
46. Creativity: There's more to creative achievement than just
creativity. you need to work hard to produce the results
47. Creativity and mental illness: Writers artists and composers
have higher rates of depression or any other disorder than
the general populace
48. Criterion Related Validity: Do sources line up with an
independent measure of the trait
49. Criterion-related validity: Is estimated by correlating
subject's scores on a test with their scores on an independent
criterion (another measure) of the trait assessed by the test
50. Criticism of Trivers and colleagues: Females show this
evolutionary tendency because they have mostly been held
back in prospective careers and females are supposed to
hide sexuality
51. Crystallized: Applying acquired knowledge for problem
solving
52. Crystallized intelligence: Involves ability to apply acquired
knowledge and skills in problem solving
53. Cultural Bias in testing: IQ tests are very westernized
therefore are they really testing IQ of all people or just of
those who belong to a Western society
54. Cultural diferences in IQ: As time passes the gap between
cultures IQ scores gets smaller suggesting that environment
plays a role in the previously lower IQ scores of different
cultures
55. Data collection techniques: Procedures for making empirical
observations and measurements
56. David Wechsler: Made the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale
that used a scoring scheme based on normal distribution.
Test had separate scores for verbal IQ and performance
(nonverbal IQ) and full scale IQ
57. Dependent variable: The variable that is thought to be
affected by manipulation of the independent variable
58. Descriptive statistics: Used to organize and summarize data
59. Deviation IQ scores: Locate subjects precisely within the
normal distribution, using the standard deviation as the unit of
measurement
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76. Evolutionary perspective on obesity: During much of our
evolutionary history, food was relatively scarce and
nutritionally simple so we evolved thrifty genes to survive
such times
Only recently have humans cone to live in a land of plenty
food however we still have thrifty genes plus we have moved
to a more sedentary lifestyle
77. Evolutionary psychology sex and mating: Females have
greater parental investment than males
Males look for females that will produce good children
(youth & attractiveness)
78. Evolutionary theories of motivation: Fear of snakes -> avoid
poison
79. Evolutionary Theorists view on EMotions: They believe that
the evolution of emotions preceded that of thought and
identify certain basic/fundamental emotions
EX disgust has an adaptive purpose to keep us away from
dangerous things
80. Excitement: Heart rate, BP etc rise above resting levels
tissues (clitoris in females) becomes erect
81. Experiment: A research method in which the investigator
manipulates a variable under carefully controlled conditions
and observes whether any changes occur in a second
variable as a result
82. Experimental group: Consists of subjects who receive some
special treatment in regard to the independent variable
83. Experimenter Bias: Occurs when a researcher's expectations
or preferences about the outcome of a study influence the
results obtained
84. Extraneous variables: Any variables other than the
independent variable that see, likely to influence the
dependent variable in a specific study
85. Facial expressions: Research suggests we actually make our
own facial expressions to help us process those of others any
may even take on those emotions. The group that could not
move their face in the study reported experiencing less
strong emotions in response to negative video clips. Other
studies suggest that certain facial arrangements induce
specific emotions
86. Factor analysis: Correlations among many variables are
analyzed to identify closely related clusters of variables
87. Females: Look for income, status, and ambition in partners
Maximize reproductive success by seeking partners willing to
invest material resources in offspring
Less interested in uncommitted sex, smaller number of sex
partners over lifetime,
88. Females ability to predict males' poential: Females can
predict a males testosterone and interest in infants based on
photos
89. Fluid Intelligence: Reasoning, working memory, information
processing
90. Fluid intelligence: Involves reasoning ability, memory
capacity, and speed of information processing
91. The Flynn Effect: IQ test results rise as you go through the
past 80 years most likely due to environmental factors. The
IQ scores are not changing what is changing is what you
need to score on a test to reach 100
92. Francis Galton: Believed intelligence is heredity and tested
sensations to determine IQ
93. Frequency distribution: An orderly arrangement of scores
indicating the frequency of each score or a group of scores
94. Frequency polygon: A line figure used to present data from a
frequency distribution
95. Galvanic Skin Response GSR: An increase in the electrical
conductivity of the skin that occurs when sweat glands
increase their activity
96. Genetics of hapiness: Two genetic variants of the serotonin
transporter. Various effects of these variants have been
observed. Researchers found an association between the
longer variant and happiness, though there has been trouble
replicating it
97. Genetics vs environment?: Genetics sets a range of IQ and
your environment will place you somewhere in that
predetermined range
98. Ghrelin: Is secreted by the empty stomach causing
contractions and acting in the brain to induce hunger
99. Glucose: A simple sugar that is an important source of energy
100. Guilford: 150 different unique components of intelligence
101. Hedonic adaptations: Occurs when the mental scale that
people use to judge pleasantness-unpleasantness of their
experiences shifts so that their neutral point (or baseline for
comparison) changes
102. Heritability of BMI: ~0.6-0.7
103. Heritability of sexuality: Range of 0.5-0.74
104. Heritability Ratio: An estimate of the proportion of trait
variability in a population that is determined by variations in
genetic inheritance
105. Heterosexual: Seek emotional-sexual relationships with
members of the other sex
106. Homeostasis: A state of physiological equilibrium or stability
107. Homosexual: Likes members of the same sex
108. Homosexual Female brain: Lesbian women brains respond
to pheromones resemble those of heterosexual men not
heterosexual women
109. Homosexual Male Brain: IN response to the male
pheromone androstenedione, male homosexual brain activity
resembles that of heterosexual females not heterosexual
males
110. Honest indicators: Ex would be deer antler size and sperm
quality being related
111. How are IQ scores normalized?: They are normalized, with a
given score always representing the same percentile
112. How is reliability measured?: Via test-retest reliabilty
113. How many countries is being gay illegal in ?: about 75
countries
114. How much of the population is homosexual: about 8 %
hard to determine due to prejudices
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