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Lecture 3

PSYC1003 Lecture 3: set-184306897-e1fe540f0fe204ce55f08e4e84890f57

8 Pages

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Dr.Harald Taukulis

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find more resources at Psychology 1004 Test 1 Study online at 1.Achievement Motive: Need to master difficult challenges, to 17Binet and Simon: Focused on assessing children and out perform others, and to meet high standards of identifying mentally subnormal ones excellence Used abstract reasoning skills Used mental age to say if a child was average, advanced or 2.Achievement tests: Gauge a persons' mastery and knowledge of various subjects retarded 3.Affective forecasting: Efforts to predict one's emotional 18Biological correlates of intelligence: Research indicates that reaction to future events both white and grey matter in the brain are important in 4.Affiliating motive: Need to associate with other and maintain determining intelligence. New research also indicates that gyrification is positively correlated with intelligence social bonds 5.Alfred Binet: Invented the first practical IQ test. Used mental 19Bisexual: Likes members of either sex 20.Body Mass Index BMI: An individual's weight (in kilograms) age and measured reasoning skills divided by height (in meters) sqared 6.All 200 of these applicants are hired and put to work selling computers, After six months, Professor Sam correlates the 21Brain and behavioural component: Neural correlates of emotions measure brain activity. They found a baseline array new workers' aptitude test scores with the dollar value of the computers that each sold during the first six months on of brain areas active in neutral face processing (fusiform the job. This correlation turns out to by -0.21. This finding gyrus) but additional areas active in response to non-neutral suggests the test may lack_________: Criterion-related validity emotions 22.Cannon-Bard: Stimulus>Subcortical brain activity > conscious 7.Anecdotal evidence: Consists of personal stories about specific incidents and experiences feeling+Autonomic arousal (simultaneously) Thalamus sends info in two directions simultaneously to the 8.Aptitude test: Asses specific types of mental abilities cortex and amygdala 9.Argument: Consists of one or more premises that are used to 23.Can sight and smell of food affect appetite: When you see provide support for a conclusion or smell food your insulin levels can rise 10.Arthur Jensen: Intelligence is largely genetic in origin and therefore genetic factors are strongly implicated as the 24.Case study: An in depth investigation of an individual subject 25.CCK: is secreted by the intestine and acts on the cause of ethnic differences in intelligence hypothalamus to decrease hunger/food intake 11Assumptions: Premises for which no proof or evidence is offered 26.Choice: Is often kept in check by their associated costs which are also what makes them good indicators 12At the request of the HiTechnol and computer store chain, Professor Sam develops a test to measure aptitude for 27.Claude Steele: Feelings of stereotypes vulnerability can undermine group members' performance on tests, as well as selling computers. Two hundred applicants for sales hobs at HiTechnol and stores are asked to take the test on two other measures of academic achievement occasions, a few weeks apart. A correlation of +0.82 is 28.Cognitive Component of Emotion: We evaluate our emotions found between applicants's scores on the two and try to predict them; affective forecasting administrations of the test. Thus, the test appears to possess 29.Commonsense theory of emotion: Stimulus>conscious reasonable_________: Test-retest reliability feeling>autonomic arousal 13.At which step of the research process did researchers create 30.Compensatory responses: the body's attempt to regain operational definitions for their variables?: Step 1: Formulate homeostasis in drug users a testable hypothesis 31Competition: In most cases there is competition by males and 14.Back at the university, Professor Sam is teaching a course in selection by females theories of personality. He decides to use the same midterm Female choice is often based on appearance exam that he gave last year even though the exam includes 32.Confounding variable: Occurs when two variables are linked questions about theorists that he did not cover or assign together in a way that makes it difficult to sort out their reading on this year. There are reasons to doubt the specific effects ____________ of Professor Sams midterm exam: Content Validity 33.Construct validity: The extent to which there is evidence that a test measures a particular hypothetical construct 15.Behavioural Component of Emotions: People can accurately and quickly discern emotions from facial expressions 34.Construct validity: Does the test measure a particular hypothetical construct 16.Between subjects design: Each participant is in only one 35.Content Validity: Does the content represent the overall condition domain being tested 36.Content validity: The degree to which the content of a test is representative of the domain it's supposed to cover 37.Control Group: Consists of similar subjects who do not receive the special treatment given to the experimental group find more resources at find more resources at 38.Control Group: Consists of similar subjects who receive some 60.Differences in emotions across countries: The recognition of special treatment in regard to the independent variable emotions is pretty consistent but not quite universal due to 39.Convergent thinking: One tries to narrow down a list of differences in display norms alternatives to converge on a single correct answer. Inside 61Display rules: Norms that regulate the appropriate expression the box thinking of emotion 40.Conversion Therapy: Psychological technique (shocking/talk 62.Divergent thinking: One tries to expand the range of therapy) to be trained to get rid of the homosexuality alternatives by generating many possible solutions tendencies 63.Does being around people influence appetite?: Yes. The 41.Correlation: Exists when two variables are related to each amount consumed was highly correlated in females and other mixed pairs but not males 42.Correlation: Is most often represented by the correlation 64.Does brain size determine intelligence?: Overall there is a coefficient r that ranges from -1 to 1 correlation of 0.33 between brain volume and intelligence 43.Correlation Coefficient: A numerical index of the degree of 65.Does environmental factors affect IQ?: Some adoption relationship between two variables studies say yes because those who were adopted performed 44.Correlation coefficient: A numerical index of the degree of better then their siblings who were not adopted relationship between two variables 66.Does IQ predict career success?: Yes but the predictive 45.Creativity: Involves the generation of ideas that are original, power is moderate at 0.37, similar to that of grades and parents socioeconomic status novel, and useful 46.Creativity: There's more to creative achievement than just 67.Do IQ tests have reliability?: If there is a high correlation creativity. you need to work hard to produce the results then yes 68.Do IQ tests have validity?: Depends on what you think IQ is 47.Creativity and mental illness: Writers artists and composers have higher rates of depression or any other disorder than good for IQ tests have good construct validity (test matches up to the general populace 48.Criterion Related Validity: Do sources line up with an other tests in terms of peoples answers) There is criterion validity in regards to high IQ and academic independent measure of the trait performance 49.Criterion-related validity: Is estimated by correlating Content validity- do IQ test test comprehensively? subject's scores on a test with their scores on an independent criterion (another measure) of the trait assessed by the test 69.Double-Blind Procedure: Research strategy in which neither subjects nor experimenters know which subjects are in the 50.Criticism of Trivers and colleagues: Females show this experimental or control groups evolutionary tendency because they have mostly been held 70.Drive: An internal state of tension that motivates an organism back in prospective careers and females are supposed to to engage in activities that should reduce this tension hide sexuality 51.Crystallized: Applying acquired knowledge for problem 71Ellen Winner: Moderately gifted children are very different from profoundly gifted children as those who are profoundly solving gifted are introverted and socially isolated 52.Crystallized intelligence: Involves ability to apply acquired 72.Emotional disorders: Research has shown that people with knowledge and skills in problem solving emotional disorders like depression or PTSD have excessive 53.Cultural Bias in testing: IQ tests are very westernized amygdala activity as regulated by the prefrontal cortex -> therefore are they really testing IQ of all people or just of Over reactivity those who belong to a Western society 73.Emotional Intelligence: Consists of the ability to perceive and 54.Cultural diferences in IQ: As time passes the gap between express emotion, assimilate emotion in thought, understand cultures IQ scores gets smaller suggesting that environment and reason with emotion, and regulate emotion plays a role in the previously lower IQ scores of different 74.Emotions: Involves a subjective conscious experience (the cultures cognitive component) accompanied by bodily arousal (the 55.Data collection techniques: Procedures for making empirical physiological component) and characteristic overt observations and measurements expressions (the behavioural component) 56.David Wechsler: Made the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale 75.Environment factors that influence hunger: Amount of food that used a scoring scheme based on normal distribution. in front of us: High correlation between the amount served Test had separate scores for verbal IQ and performance and the amount consumed (nonverbal IQ) and full scale IQ We seem to focus on units more so than total qualities 57.Dependent variable: The variable that is thought to be The more variety of food in front of us the more we consume affected by manipulation of the independent variable (think of a buffet vs porridge) 58.Descriptive statistics: Used to organize and summarize data 59.Deviation IQ scores: Locate subjects precisely within the normal distribution, using the standard deviation as the unit of measurement find more resources at find more resources at 76.Evolutionary perspective on obesity: During much of our 91The Flynn Effect: IQ test results rise as you go through the evolutionary history, food was relatively scarce and past 80 years most likely due to environmental factors. The nutritionally simple so we evolved thrifty genes to survive IQ scores are not changing what is changing is what you such times need to score on a test to reach 100 Only recently have humans cone to live in a land of plenty 92.Francis Galton: Believed intelligence is heredity and tested food however we still have thrifty genes plus we have moved sensations to determine IQ to a more sedentary lifestyle 93.Frequency distribution: An orderly arrangement of scores 77.Evolutionary psychology sex and mating: Females have indicating the frequency of each score or a group of scores greater parental investment than males 94.Frequency polygon: A line figure used to present data from a Males look for females that will produce good children frequency distribution (youth & attractiveness) 95.Galvanic Skin Response GSR: An increase in the electrical 78.Evolutionary theories of motivation: Fear of snakes -> avoid poison conductivity of the skin that occurs when sweat glands increase their activity 79.Evolutionary Theorists view on EMotions: They believe that 96.Genetics of hapiness: Two genetic variants of the serotonin the evolution of emotions preceded that of thought and transporter. Various effects of these variants have been identify certain basic/fundamental emotions observed. Researchers found an association between the EX disgust has an adaptive purpose to keep us away from longer variant and happiness, though there has been trouble dangerous things replicating it 80.Excitement: Heart rate, BP etc rise above resting levels tissues (clitoris in females) becomes erect 97.Genetics vs environment?: Genetics sets a range of IQ and your environment will place you somewhere in that 81.Experiment: A research method in which the investigator predetermined range manipulates a variable under carefully controlled conditions 98.Ghrelin: Is secreted by the empty stomach causing and observes whether any changes occur in a second contractions and acting in the brain to induce hunger variable as a result 82.Experimental group: Consists of subjects who receive some 99.Glucose: A simple sugar that is an important source of energy 100Guilford: 150 different unique components of intelligence special treatment in regard to the independent variable 101Hedonic adaptations: Occurs when the mental scale that 83.Experimenter Bias: Occurs when a researcher's expectations or preferences about the outcome of a study influence the people use to judge pleasantness-unpleasantness of their experiences shifts so that their neutral point (or baseline for results obtained 84.Extraneous variables: Any variables other than the comparison) changes 102Heritability of BMI: ~0.6-0.7 independent variable that see, likely to influence the dependent variable in a specific study 103Heritability of sexuality: Range of 0.5-0.74 85.Facial expressions: Research suggests we actually make our 104Heritability Ratio: An estimate of the proportion of trait own facial expressions to help us process those of others any variability in a population that is determined by variations in may even take on those emotions. The group that could not genetic inheritance move their face in the study reported experiencing less 105Heterosexual: Seek emotional-sexual relationships with strong emotions in response to negative video clips. Other members of the other sex studies suggest that certain facial arrangements induce 106Homeostasis: A state of physiological equilibrium or stability specific emotions 107Homosexual: Likes members of the same sex 86.Factor analysis: Correlations among many variables are analyzed to identify closely related clusters of variables 108Homosexual Female brain: Lesbian women brains respond to pheromones resemble those of heterosexual men not 87.Females: Look for income, status, and ambition in partners Maximize reproductive success by seeking partners willing to heterosexual women 109Homosexual Male Brain: IN response to the male invest material resources in offspring Less interested in uncommitted sex, smaller number of sex pheromone androstenedione, male homosexual brain activity resembles that of heterosexual females not heterosexual partners over lifetime, 88.Females ability to predict males' poential: Females can males predict a males testosterone and interest in infants based on 110Honest indicators: Ex would be deer antler size and sperm photos quality being related 89.Fluid Intelligence: Reasoning, working memory, information 11How are IQ scores normalized?: They are normalized, with a given score always representing the same percentile processing 90.Fluid intelligence: Involves reasoning ability, memory 112How is reliability measured?: Via test-retest reliabilty capacity, and speed of information processing 113How many countries is being gay illegal in ?: about 75 countries 114How much of the population is homosexual: about 8 % hard to determine due to prejudices find more resources at find more resources at 115Hunger: Early lesioning studies pinpointed the ventromedial 135.Kinsey's Continuum of Sexual Orientation: Sexuality is not nucleus of the hypothalamus and the lateral hypothalamus, black or white but a spectrum subsequent research suggests that the arcuate nucleus and 136.Leptin: Is a hormone produced by white adipose tissue (fat) the paraventricular nucleus may be equally or more Decreases appetite important 137.Lewis Terman: Made the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale. 116Hypothalamus: Is important in sexual behaviour Schools started to adopt IQ tests for students 117Hypothesis: A tentative statement about the relationships 138.Males: Reproduction involves minimal investment of time, between two or more variables energy and risk 118Importance of the Flynn Effect: Can be used in court to Maximize reproductive success by seeking more sexual show that someone who was deemed competent back in the partners with high reproductive potential past for their criminal actions could now be deemed mentally More interest in uncommitted sex, greater number of sex disabled partners over lifetime 119Incentive: An external goal that has the capacity to motivate 139.Mean: The arithmetic average if the scores in a distribution behaviour 140.Median: the score that falls exactly in the centre of a 120.Incentive theories: Expectancy-value models factor in the distribution of scores odds of achieving the goal 141Mental age: Indicated that he or she displayed the mental Push vs Pull theory ability typical of a child of that chronological (actual) age 121Independent variable: A condition or event that an 142.Meta-analysis: Combination of the statistical results of many experimenter varies in order to see its impact on another studies of the same question, yielding an estimate of the size variable and consistency of a variable's effects 122.Inferential statistics: Used to interpret data and draw 143.Mild Intellectual Disability: IQ: 55-70 conclusions Typically grade six level by late teens, special education 123.Insulin: is produced by the pancreas and is also sensitive to helpful, some graduate high school. the body's fat stores Can be self supporting in nearly normal fashion if Decreases appetitie environment is stable and supportive, may need help with 124.Intellectual disability: Subnormal general mental ability stress accompanied by deficiencies in adaptive skills, originating 144.Mode: The most frequent score in a distribution before age 18. 145.Moderate Intellectual DIsability: IQ: 40-55 125.Intellectual disability: Subnormal general mental ability IQ Grade 2/4 by late teens; special education necessary lower then 70, with deficiencies in adaptive skills before the Can be semi-independent in sheltered environment; needs age of 18 help with even mild stress 126.Intellectual disability and socioeconomics: Link between 146.Motivation: Involves goal directed behaviour mild ID and parents socioeconomic status. Factors affecting 147.Multiple orgasms: Can happen in females but care not this would be : happen in males Nutrition 148.Naturalistic observation: A researchers engages in careful Parenting quality observation of behaviour without intervening directly with the Schooling research subjects or participants Infection 127.Intelligence Quotient IQ: A child's mental age divided by 149.Negative Correlation: As A increases B decreases Gets closer to -1 chronological age, multiplied by 100 150.Negatively skewed distribution: Most scores pile up at the 128.Intelligence test: Measures general mental ability high end of the scale 129.Interest in sex as you age: In females as they get older their 151Normal distribution: A symmetrical, bell-shaped curve that interest in sex drops off significantly
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