BIOL 2020U Lecture Notes - Blastocyst, Brown Algae, Plant

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29 Jan 2013
Definition of species (basic unit of classification):
Members of a species are similar (phenotype) to each other but different from other
o Similarity of organisms in same species can be
physical (branching pattern of trees)
biochemical (haemoglobin structure)
immunological (antibody against an antigen equally effective)
development (similar growth of embryos)
ecological (occupy identical ecological niche)
(Group of) organisms able to interbreed/reproduce giving fertile offspring
o Each species is reproductively isolated from every other species
The five-kingdom classification of organisms
Nomenclature: Naming of organisms
Binomial: Biological name of an organism → Genus species
Taxon: Set of organisms within a category / Taxonomy / Study of biological
Different levels of taxons: SPECIES, GENUS, FAMILY, ORDER, CLASS, PHYLUM,
o Most number of species on right
o Most similar organisms on left
Unicellular: Single cell; Colonial: Groups of cells; Multicellular: Many cells
Autotrophs produce energy from inorganic sources
o Phototrophs from photosynthesis/sunlight
o Chemotrophs from simple inorganic (oxidative) processes
Heterotrophs digest and absorb organic molecules
Prokaryotae (prokaryotes)
Cell structure:
o Prokaryotes, unicellular
o Prokaryotes lack cytoplasmic organelles found in eukaryotes
Cell wall: murein
Nutrition: autotrophic (photosynthesis, chemosynthesis), aerobic heterotrophs
Divide by binary fission, not by mitosis
≈10μm in size (bacterial cell, filaments of blue-green bacteria)
Mutualistic nitrogen-fixing bacteria live in nodules on the root of legumes / symbiotic
Protoctista (protoctists)
Cell structure: eukaryotes, unicellular and multicellular
Cell wall: (sometimes) polysaccharide
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