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Lecture 1

CRM 2306 Lecture Notes - Lecture 1: Hegemonic Masculinity, Prison School, Total Institution

Course Code
CRM 2306
Kate Fletcher

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Federal Penitentiaries
- Correctional Service Canada (CSC)
Federal Prison
- Over 2 years of time
- Federal correctional institution
o Minimum
o Medium
o Maximum
- The cascading effect moving down the security levels
- Average $117,000 to keep one man in a medium security prison
- Average $211,000 to keep one woman in a medium security prison (feminine products, more
health concerns, pregnancy, economies of scale (fewer women))
Provincial Prison System
- Ministry of Community Safety and Correctional Services
o Correctional Centres
Education, living skills
o Jails/detention centres
Serving less than 60 days
Waiting to be transferred to a federal institution
o Treatment centres
Mental disorders
Specialized programming
- People sentenced to less than 2 years
- People being held on remand
- People at the end of their sentence
Reintegration Approach
Correctional ideology/rhetoric
- Acquisition of legitimate skills
- Creation of supervised opportunity for testing, using, refining
o Work skills
o Education
o Psychological skills
o Behavioural skills
Managing Risk in a Correctional Institute
- Continues emphasis on rehab and reintegration
- Emphasis on managing risk
o Manage the risk that these individuals pose on the rest of society
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Managerialism you manage intuition the way you run for profit/ business
enterprises (measurement, quantifying data, control)
Reintegration Approach
- Risk analysis ---- recidivism (chance of reoffending)
o Risk ---- static risk factors (things that cannot be changed) (ex. criminal history, race,
age, family history (abuse, adoption), gender)
o Needs --- dynamic (substance abuse, prosocial activities, mental health, education,
social support)
- Case management process
1. Offender Intake Assessment
a. Multi method process parole officer collection information will use many
b. Indicators: Employment, family, substance abuse, community functioning,
personal/emotional, attitude
2. Correctional Place/ supervision
3. Case preparation for release
a. What community programs you will do
b. What jo oull get
4. Parole Board decision
a. Whether or not you are released
5. Release/ community supervision
a. Usually a half-way house and community supervision
o Risk Assessment
Clinical professional opinion
Actuarial collection and measurement of data
What security level you get put in
Release decisions
o New Rehabilitationism
Effective risk management strategy
Do risk assessment, get risk knowledge and add that to how we rehabilitate
Transform individuals risk
Who are we trying to make people resemble?
Who is this ideal person that is low risk?
If there people that are automatically disadvantaged from this process
because of race, where they live?
o How do we make prisoners into a science experiment?
Uderstad hat there lakig e a attept to fill those gaps
This will lower their riskiness
Goal : Normalizing these offenders
Symbolic Functions of Prison
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o Illustrate what the consequences of resistance are (liberty taken away and punishment)
o Conceal the fact that the social is carceral
Schools, factories, cubical farms are all carceral
A lot of the rules are there to compel people to act a certain way
The Prison Population
- 1/5 inmates is over the age of 50
- The average level of education is grade 8
- 80% of prisoners say that they have been labeled as having substance abuse problems
- 80% of federal women have been sexually abused
- 31% have hepatitis C
- 5% are HIV positive
- Over half of sentences are 2 months or less in Canada (minor offences)
- 91% of women and 85% of men get a sentence of 6 months of less
- 3.6% get a federal sentence
“pecial populations in Federal Prisons
Female prisoners (over 2 years)
- 34% aboriginal
- 3% violent offences
- 29% drug offences
- 80% have been sexually abused
o More than half of working poor
o 2/3 of minimum wage workers (4/10 have not finished high school)
o Casual workers ustale, dot hae eefits
- Collateral Costs of Imprisonment
o 2/3 are mother of children under the age of 5
o 70% are single mothers
- Correctional Philosophies
o Model of formal equality (up until 1980)
Same program and services as men
Men and women are different so they have different needs
We are trying to make women fit into a male model
These programs will not stick with these women because they are not
made for women
o Prison for Women (P4W)
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