ANT101H5 Lecture Notes - Field Research, Mohenjo-Daro, Anthropomorphism

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5 Apr 2013
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Chapter 16 Lecture Notes
Effects of Food Production and CITIES
Increased Population Density
o People are closer together
Permanent Settlements
New Technologies
o Increasing craft specialists
New Social and Economic Relations
o New Status ideas
Environmental Changes
o Including decreased species diversity
o Manipulation of the environment for cultural purposes
Diet & Health
o Including new diseases due to population density
o Less starvation, more malnutrition and especially new diseases
o Zoolic diseases (diseases you get from animals)
o Reliable new supply allowing new economic and social roles
Cities (Urbanism)
We begin to see more status emerging
Definition of the City (page 375)
o Large settlement, dense population
o Function as center for surrounding settlements
o Place of social complexity (non-kin; classes)
o Center for production, trade, religion, administration
Between 6,000 -5,000 years ago we see the first cities
Old World are typically are much more densely settled
New World is more spread out in density
States (Political & Social Hierarchies)
Similarly today, almost everyone lives in a nation state
Definition of State:
Textbook: (from the perspective of modern states) pg. 376 - 377
o Governmental entity, politically controls territory
o Authority to settle disputes
o Maintains central symbols of society
Religious symbols (if they draw on religious society)
These can be objects, places, building
o Defends/expands society
Implies a sort of force
ALSO in Ancient States: (contrasted with other political systems)
o Power to enforce decisions through coercion/force
As well as persuasion
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o Leaders highly ranked, usually hereditary
Of a different social class
o Power of leaders over non-kin
Different of other system where you have power over them
because you are the elder
Here you have power over non based on kin relationship
o Associated with CLASSED-BASED societies
Class
Divisions into social groups which are hierarchical
o Not all even
Usually based on occupational/economic groups, (not kin-groups) but can
have hereditary aspect
o Classes are often grouped within economic and occupational
commonality
Pathways to increased social status
Think about the pathways through which one can gain social status in the
past
Hereditary reasons happen right away
Skills is the first reason for some leadership status
o Ie. Exceptionally skilled hunter, persuading people to do things, to
solve conflicts
This is a slow process
Wealth if you accumulate surplus through wealth where people owe you
things when they are in bad times and you help them
Trade goods having a skill this way
Have a right to useful resources controlling particular resources
Ownership of land seems to be a relatively late development in most
societies
o Might have a big family to produce more (not just having a big land)
Might own things that are prestigious
o Ie. Family Heirlooms
Civilization
According to the textbook, pg. 374, involve
o Political organizations (states of one kind or another)
o Social organizations based on classes
Some things that we call civilizations involve more than one political entity
TEXTBOOK DEFINTION:
o The larger social order that includes states related by language,
tradition, history, economic ties, and other shared cultural aspects
Typical Attributes Some or all of:
Urbanization (Cities)
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