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Lecture 2

ANT101H5 Lecture Notes - Lecture 2: Adenine, Abo Blood Group System, Uracil

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Sherry Fukuzawa

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ANT101(2013) Biology & Evolution
A Brief History of the Development of Thought on Human Evolution
1. Origin Myths
-All human cultures seem to have a theory of belief surrounding the origins of humans
-Universal Explanations
How humans came into existence
Relationship of humans & other animals
How humans are the ultimate products of creation
2. Fixity of Species
-Species, once created can never change
-Reflected powerful religious system in Europe
-Accepted that all living things created by God
3. Great Chain of Being
-1st proposed by Aristotle in 4th century BC
-All animals arranged in a hierarchy that progressed from simplest to most complex
-Humans at top of hierarchy
4. Genus & Species
-John Ray , 17 century
-Saw that certain plants & animals could be distinguished from other groups by their
ability reproduce with one another and produce viable offspring
-Placed reproductively isolated groups of individuals in a category called “species”
-Recognized that some species shared similarities called “genus”
5. Systema Natura; Linnaeus, 1735
-Classified living things into a hierarchy of taxonomic categories
-Used binomial nomenclature
-Standardized Ray’s species & genus, & added class & order
6. Uniformitarianism: Lyell, 1833
-Processes shaping the earth are the same today as they were in the past – uniform &
continuous in nature
-Time scale of the earth is in millions of years
7. Survival of the Fittest; Malthus, 1798
-Speculated that
Human populations multiply geometrically
Food resources grow arithmetically
Human populations will outgrow resources unless there is a constant check to
maintain a certain population size
Not everyone born can possible survive
8. Transformation; Lamarck, 1809
-Most influential pre-Darwin evolutionist
-Non-Darwinian features:
Inheritance of acquired characteristics
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9. Darwinism
-Charles Darwin, 1809-1882
-Alfred Wallace, 1823-1913
-selection is the key to evolution
-Struggle for existence means that those individuals with favorable variations survive &
reproduce more successfully
Three observations
1. Biological variation within all species
2. All species capable of reproducing at a faster rate than food supply
3. Competition for limited resources
Five Deductions
1. Individuals with favorable traits have an advantage
2. Traits are inherited and passed on to the next generation
3. Environment determines which traits are favorable
4. Over geological time, successful variations accumulate so that later generations may be
distinct from their ancestors
5. Geographical isolation may lead to a new species
Gregor Mendel (1822-1884)
-Father of modern genetics
-Provided mechanisms of natural selection through breeding experiments with peas
-Determined how one trait passed from one generation to the next
Principle of Segregation
-Each unit pair separates in gamete production, so that each gamete contains 1 member
of each pair. During fertilization individual units come together.
Principle of Independent Assortment
-Units (genes) that code for different traits assort independently of each other during
gamete formation and recombine in offspring.
-Unit of heredity – controls trait
-Portion of DNA molecule
-Contains several base pairs to direct the production of a particular protein.
-Alternate forms of a single gene
Important to remember:
-Natural Selection operates on the features in an individual, but populations evolve
Fitness: the relative reproductive success of individuals.
Will change as the environment changes
-Evolution acts on a population
Change in allele frequency from one generation to the next in a population
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