lecture 04

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8 Oct 2011

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Anthropology Lec 04 Language
The Origins of Language
1.Divine theory – Tower of Babel (Gen. 11)
- language is an important aspect of human, lang not influences thought but it is a
community formation( tower building)
2.“Ding‐dong” theory – Cratylus & Socrates
-natural association of words and the things that they refer to
- it was criticized and said that it was arbitrary
3.“Bow wow” theory – Lubbock, onomatopoeia
-assocaited with 19 cen. Jhon leric
-onomatic piea, human construct animate sounds that hey refer to (sing sang, bang)
4.“Ouch” theory – Darwin, primate cries
-there’s a continuity btw monkey and ape vocalization
5.Evolutionary theory – hominization
-where the perigry separates from human
-bipidialsim (accedes the expansions of the brain)
- linked to tool making (there’s sequencing just like in language and repetition )
-argues that we have to look at comparative anatomy
The Biology of Language
The human brain
1.High index of encephalization
-we have large brains in comparison to our bodies
2. Expanded neocortex; reduced olfactory bulb
-(gray matter are fairly large)
-sight, sound and touch expand in the neocortex
-greater ability for memory, planning, thinking
-the necortex is 80% of the human brain
3. Lateralization of linguistic functions
-means specialization in the right or the left hemisphere
1. Broca’s area (speech) – left frontal lobe
-CONTROLS MUSCUELS for lips, tongue muscles for the face
-soldiers(Military) loss the ability to speak but not the ability to understand and broc.
2. Wernicke’s area (syntax) – left temporal lobe –CANT understand language
The Biology of Language 2
The human vocal apparatus
1. Lungs-vocal cord
2. Larynx-known as the vocal cord, everybody has diff. Vocal cord
3. Supra‐laryngeal vocal tract-they have containers
1. Resonators: pharynx, oral cavity,nasal cavity- we can control
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