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Lecture

Detailed Lecture Notes - Chapter 7

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Department
Anthropology
Course
ANT101H5
Professor
Heather Miller
Semester
Winter

Description
Chapter 7 Lecture Primates: Characteristics and Anatomical Adaptations  What are the basic characteristics of primates?  Primates are Generalized  Primates have longer maturation, greater dependence on behavioral flexibility and social groups (usually with resident males) Generalized  Quite generalized with a lot of primitive  Generalized locomotion  Generalized diet (fruit eaters, grass eaters) Primate Group Tendencies  Page 117-120  Grasping hands and often grasping feet o Opposable thumbs  Use sound and smell for marking  There is a big focus on vision  highly developed in primates  Increased brain capacity Evolutionary Factors  Discussed on pages 120-121  Grasping hands, generalized diet and feet and vision is focused on  Adaptations for living in the tree tops (for most primates in general) o Selection for particular group tendencies  Adaptation for hunting small prey with visions (ie. insects) o Using vision instead of scent  These adaptations are due to a focus on foods that are associated with flowering plants o Flowers and fruits have a lot of nutrients in them  Primate ancestors developed right around the same time as developing plants  Could be for new opportunity for food (many of which are colored and up in the tree tops) these are selected for these traits  All three ideas of evolutionary advantages are not discrete but rather overlapping Diet & Teeth  Figure 6-6, p 120-124  Interested because a major source when looking at fossils  Can tell a lot about diet from looking at teeth  Most primates tend to be medium everything when their dentition is involve o Do not have enormous canines o Incisors can be very long and sharp  Tend not to have a lot of specialization in their teeth  Relativity little change between groups  Difference between the new world monkey and caterangs, have lost one pre molder Locomotion & Habitat  Human are an exception  In general, primates tend to be generalized  Relative length of arms and lengths, and it can tell you a lot of the method of locomotion  Leaper and clinger tends to have longer legs  Can tell about the habitats where they lived Outline of Primate Groups  Page 126 of text – chart  Know proper name of the groups  Strephsirhini o Lemurs o Lorises/Galagoes  Haplorhini o Tarsiers  General division between the new world monkies and old world (apes, monkey’s, humans)  Primate Behavioral Models for Human Evolution Why Are Anthropologists Interested in Primate Studies?  Anthropology uses comparative approach to evolution  To create hypothesis and test them,  To compare our cousins as we do not have members of our own genus to look at Modern primates are NOT our ancestors Comparative Approach to Evolution  (1) Biological Continuum o To remind us that humans are part of a continuum of life forms  anatomically and behaviorally o We need to understand the continuum by comparing humans and close relatives  (2) Modern primates DOES NOT EQUAL our ancestors  (3) Evolution is not goal-directe
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