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Detailed Lecture Chapter 12 Notes

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University of Toronto Mississauga
Heather Miller

Lecture - Chapter 12 Homo Sapiens (AMH)  (Anatomically Modern Humans)  AMH is used to get around all the issue of what exact species we are talking about Time and Place – From at least: (figure 12-7)  200, 000 ya in Africa o Figure 12-1 o Smaller brow ridges, bigger cranium  120, 000 ya in Near East/West Asia o Figure 12-3  40, 000 ya in Europe & East Asia  40, 000 OR 15, 000 ya in Australia to the present Morphological Characteristics  Distinct chin  Round skull o Some of the older H. sapiens are a little thicker  Vertical face o Eye forward head  Pyramidal mastoid process o Characteristic of Homo sapiens  Less brow ridge  Figure 12-3 What is a species? Definitions (page 103-106)  Speciation – process of separation into new species from an ancestral population o Often based on initial geographic separation (by mountains, distance, deserts etc.) o Can’t interbreed no more, genetic drift  Biological species – populations that can interbreed with each other and produce fertile offspring o H. Neanderthal and H. sapien did produce offspring (Since there DNA is found in us)  Paleospecies – species defined from fossil evidence (page 105) o Neanderthal was becoming their own species (either biologically, physically, geographically) they did not interrupt much o At one point however, Neanderthals and Homo sapiens did interbreed at one point in time What happened with Homo line?  Page 275-277  Figure 11-22 o Upper chart shows a “lumping” tradition o Group of species in some fashion related to each other where Neanderthals are separated in their own line o The lower chart, shows a much more splitting biological species of what our species were o Separate different species and their ancestral links are based on specimens we haven’t found yet Transition Models: Process of Evolution from Premoderns to H. sapiens  How do we look at the evolution process from premoderns to h. sapiens?  Paleoanthropologists do is make models based on evidence and later compare to more recent evidence later on  In all of these models, theres the recognition that premodern and modern humans overlap  Two questions the model asks:  Does evolution occur outside of Africa? (transition into H. sapiens)  Is there any interbreeding between premoderns and moderns Regional Continuity: Multi-Regional Evolution Model – proposes:  Evolution in Africa, Asia and Europe o Premodern populations evolved into H. sapien like species  Significant interbreeding premods & modern AND Significant interbreeding across all regions o The only way this works is if a lot of interbreeding occurred between these groups o At least all the moderns have to be able to interbreed with each other across an enormous region  Premoderns & moderns all a single biological species (Archaic & modern Homo sapiens) o They have to be the same species in order to interbreed frequently  Not widely used anymore o Doesn’t seem to fit the data anymore Complete Replacement Model – proposes:  Evolve in Africa, migrate out o AMH arose in Africa in the last 200,000 ya and migrate to Asia and Europe o There is no evolution to H. sapien outside of Africa  NO interbreeding (or very little) o Between moderns and premoderns  Premoderns completely different biological species, NOT Homo sapiens  Perhaps some areas, but DNA data shows some interbreeding with Neandertals o This is not what happened with Neandertals, there was at least some interbreeding Partial Replacement Models – proposes:  Evolve in Africa, migrate out (most models) o There is no transition from premoderns to moderns outside of Africa  Interbreeding of premoderns & moderns, both locally & new populations from Africa o Vers. A: Minor interbreeding  premoderns are replaced by moderns o Vers. B: Significant interbreeding in some regions  Minor because different PALEOspecies o Minor interbreeding in particular points in time and places, but geographical and behavioural separation occurs o Population then becomes separate because there is no more interbreeding that occurs  SUM: Most ancestors African, but not all o Most ancestros of H. sapiens are from Africa, but not all ancestors where there may have been a little bit of interbreeding  Neandertal DNA data supports Partial Replacement, at low levels’ more work may show more interbreeding – or not Types of Evidence Morphological/ Anatomical Evidence  Dating of earliest finds o All of the earliest fines are from Africa, then middle east then every place else o This supports the replacement model o Figure 12-7  Transitional skeletons (e.g. Europan Neandertals & moderns) o Figure 12-13 (Lagar Velho Child from Portugal) (page 294 discussing this boy in great length) o They look Neanderthals and modern humans  Dating problems & transitional skeletons in Asia and Australia Genetic Evidence  MODERN populations: DNA Studies o Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) – tells you about the mother o Nuclear DNA - both useful in thinking about how evolutionary relationships might have happened o Explanations for & problems with data  ANCIENT populations: DNA Studies o European Neandertals: mtDNA & nuclear Cultural Evidence  Cultural innovation should happen first SUMMARY: Evolution and Spread of Homo sapiens Overall  Partial replacement model  Populaitons coming out of Africa (for the most part) and interbreeding Neandertals  There was minor interbreeding early on  Maybe n
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