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Detailed Lecture Chapter 14 Notes

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Heather Miller

Chapter 14 Lecture Notes Food Production (“Neolithic Revolution”)  In Europe and Asia, they use the term Neolithic to refer to this time period Definitions  Domestication o Evolutionary process (things happened to plants and animals) o Page 343 o Genetic and phenotypic changes in plant and animal species, not through natural selection, but through artificial selection by humans. o Changes that result in the plant or animal becoming dependent on humans to reproduce and survive effectively  Cultivation o People encouraging the growth and the reproduction of particular plants by: planting them in favorable locations and possibly giving them water o Plants might or might not be domesticated (dependent on humans)  Agriculture o Page 343 o It is a specific type of cultivation o The encouragement of growth and reproduction of domesticated plants o Farming is another term people use for agriculture  Domestication is about changes in the plant or animal genotype & phenotype (evolutionary process)  Cultivation & Agriculture are about changes in human behavior (cultural process) What Happens? (In general)  Subsistence o Concentrate on fewer species of plants and animals o Narrowing of diet o They still might eat a lot of things (including non domestic thing) but the bulk of their diet focuses on few domesticated plants or animals o Opposite of Mesolithic groups (where their diet was broadening)  Settlement o Big decrease in mobility o There is no individual ownership of the land, community owns the land o Building of more permanent house structures o Start to see more Cemeteries in communities o Start to see more use of pottery  Material Culture o Pottery can be used for food (pots) or for individualized identification o Grinding tools  Social Organization o Domesticated plants and animals, therefore you are more settled down and have to deal with that o Increasing status divisions o Some people have more things than others, and some may have more authorities than others o Inherited leadership o Increasingly dense populations, you need someone who is going to be in charge o Some people have more than other, ie. Stored foods Why & How?  Different explanations of why and how people turn to agricultural lifestyles  Some theories say these are poor people who were forced to be agricultures and farmers  The textbook grouped demographic explanations under environmental (which is wrong…)  If everything is so different, why around 10,000 ya, did so many different parts of the world, people start turning to food production?  Summaries are on page 343-349 Know a sentence or two about these models  (1) Environmental Explanations o Originally come
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