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lec 3 macroevolution & human diversity (1).doc

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University of Toronto Mississauga
Dax Urbszat

ANT101 Microevolution: Human Diversity History of the study of human variation Linneaus 1758: classificatory Separated humans into 5 categories – Americanus – Europaeus – Asiaticus – Afer – Monstrosus Count de Buffon • “Varieties of the Human Species (1749) • descriptive • Rejected classifications • Emphasized unity of species • Behavioral & cultural biases • Problems in classifying humans • Humans are both the investigators & subjects • Inequalities & injustices • Eugenics • Goal was for the betterment of the human species by the selective breeding for favorable traits • Important figures in Eugenics Francis Galton • 1869 “Heredity Genius” • Prominence is inborn – Statistics – Used biology to reinforce social prejudices Charles Davenport • 1911 “Heredity in relation to eugenics” • Established eugenics in US scientific program • How was eugenics to be carried out? • Restriction of immigration • Restriction of the propagation of undesirable heritable traits • Encouragement of breeding between individuals with desirable genetic traits • Eugenics took hold in National Socialist Germany • Ernest Hooton • Broke from eugenics movement Polymorphism -a species with alternative forms (alleles) of particular genes Polytypism - The study of differences between groups Polymorphic species is divided into geographically dispersed populations • The expression on genetic variants in different frequencies in different populations of a species Distinction between racial & racist studies • Racial: Examinations of biological differences among human groups • Racist: Biological differences among human groups to reinforce social divisions Carleton Coon • “The Origins of Races” 1963 • Divided modern humans into 5 subspecies • Suggested that they existed since middle pleistocene • Criticisms – Inferring race from fossils – Using cultural criteria to rank races – Inferring different times for becoming human Synthetic Theory of Evolution • Bringing together of Darwinian natural selection & Mendelian genetics • Population genetics • Human diversity a result of microevolutionary forces acting on human gene pool • 3 forces – Natural selection – Genetic drift – Gene flow Human Polymorphisms - Traits that differ in expression between populations & individuals. 1.Genetic Pathologies 2. Human Biochemical Polymorphisms  Blood cell antigens (ABO)  Cellular recognition processes (HLA)  Miscellaneous variant forms of enzymes  Mitochondrial DNA  RFLP (restriction fragment length polymorphisms) 3. Genetics of the Individual  Human Genome Project  Human Genome Diversity Project Basic Environmental Variables 1.Thermal environment • Sweating • Vasodilation vs vasoconstriction • Body proportions – Larger surface area dissipates the most heat Bergmann’s Rulearger body mass retains heat Allen’s Rule 2. Oxygen • High altitude - reduced barometric pressure • Hypoxia • Transport & utilize O2 more efficiently • Increased RBC production (in moderate altitude) 3. Ultraviolet light • Increased melanin production with greater sunlight exposure 4. Infectious Disease o Diseases caused by microorganisms (viruses, bacteria, fungi)
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