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Biology and evolution January 18th 2011.doc

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Department
Anthropology
Course
ANT101H5
Professor
Dax Urbszat
Semester
Winter

Description
Ant 101h5s (2010) January 18 , 2010 Biology & Evolution A Brief History of the Development of Thought on Human Evolution Origin Myths- idea about origin story. • All human cultures seem to have a theory of belief surrounding the origins of humans origin and progression -universal idea. Universal Explanations • How humans came into existence • Relationship of humans & other animals. human with other others. • How humans are the ultimate products of creation -transformation of ourself, relationship with others Fixity of Species • Species, once created can never change -as they existed today, existed in the past, created the species today. • Reflected powerful religious system in Europe • Accepted that all living things created by God Great Chain of Being • 1 proposed by Aristotle in 4 century BC -human continuom or progression of other species. • All animals arranged in a hierarchy that progressed from simplest to most complex • Humans at top of hierarchy 1.places human with cont within other animals 2.top, out dated. Genus & Species John Ray , 17 century • Saw that certain plants & animals could be distinguished from other groups by their ability reproduce with one another and produce viable offspring • Placed reproductively isolated groups of individuals in a category called “species” • Recognized that some species shared similarities called “genus” -role of reproduction, relative relationship with organisms. Systema Natura; Linnaeus, 1735 = believes in the fixity of species. systems of nature – still the way we classify organisms today. • Classified living things into a hierarchy of taxonomic categories • Used binomial nomenclature- taxanomic grouping based on particular characteriscs. • Standardized Ray’s species & genus, & added class & order • creationist Uniformitarianism: Lyell, 1833 • Processes shaping the earth are the same today as they were in the past – uniform & continuous in nature-uniform and continuous in nature. • Recognize through geo processes, still ocurring today. • Time scale of the earth is in millions of years • creationist • why Processes of the past existed ? They are continuous and slow ? • Before him thought earth is 1000 years old. Survival of the Fittest; Malthus, 1798 • Speculated that Human populations multiply geometrically • Food resources grow arithmetically • political economist, analyzed different populations and survival of the fittest=1 published by him. • No checks and balances = outgrow resources. Therefore, • Human populations will out grow resources unless there is a constant check to maintain a certain population size • Not everyone born can possible survive • has to be competition so not all individuals are equal • some survive longer than others. Transformation; Lamarck, 1809 • Most influential pre-Darwin evolutionist -ideas of transformation, first to discuss change- different from present (species) • Non-Darwinian features: Inheritance of acquired characteristics Orthogenesis-transformation, alignment of organisms accoding to complexity. Vitalism-self directed, direct their own evolution (darvin said its random), self motivated not random • populations change over generations. • Traits are characteristics that are gained in the life time of an individual-passed on to offspring. • Developed over time. Darwinism • Charles Darwin, 1809-1882 • Alfred Wallace, 1823-1913-co publication of linnaeus. • Naturlist. • selection is the key to evolution-expedition to amazon. • Struggle for existence means that those individuals with favorable variations survive & reproduce more successfully Three observations • Biological variation within all species • All species capable of reproducing at a faster rate than food supply • Competition for limited resources no species were identical borrowed malthus' idea, com
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