Ant 101h5s (2010) January 18 , 2010
Biology & Evolution
A Brief History of the Development of Thought on Human Evolution
Origin Myths- idea about origin story.
• All human cultures seem to have a theory of belief surrounding the origins of humans
origin and progression -universal idea.
• How humans came into existence
• Relationship of humans & other animals.
human with other others.
• How humans are the ultimate products of creation
-transformation of ourself, relationship with others
Fixity of Species
• Species, once created can never change
-as they existed today, existed in the past, created the species today.
• Reflected powerful religious system in Europe
• Accepted that all living things created by God
Great Chain of Being
• 1 proposed by Aristotle in 4 century BC
-human continuom or progression of other species.
• All animals arranged in a hierarchy that progressed from simplest to most complex
• Humans at top of hierarchy
1.places human with cont within other animals
2.top, out dated.
Genus & Species
John Ray , 17 century
• Saw that certain plants & animals could be distinguished from other groups by their ability
reproduce with one another and produce viable offspring
• Placed reproductively isolated groups of individuals in a category called “species”
• Recognized that some species shared similarities called “genus”
-role of reproduction, relative relationship with organisms.
Systema Natura; Linnaeus, 1735 = believes in the fixity of species.
systems of nature – still the way we classify organisms today.
• Classified living things into a hierarchy of taxonomic categories
• Used binomial nomenclature- taxanomic grouping based on particular characteriscs.
• Standardized Ray’s species & genus, & added class & order
Uniformitarianism: Lyell, 1833
• Processes shaping the earth are the same today as they were in the past – uniform & continuous in
nature-uniform and continuous in nature.
• Recognize through geo processes, still ocurring today.
• Time scale of the earth is in millions of years
• why Processes of the past existed ?
They are continuous and slow ? • Before him thought earth is 1000 years old.
Survival of the Fittest; Malthus, 1798
• Speculated that Human populations multiply geometrically
• Food resources grow arithmetically
• political economist, analyzed different populations and survival of the fittest=1 published by him.
• No checks and balances = outgrow resources.
• Human populations will out grow resources unless there is a constant check to maintain a certain
• Not everyone born can possible survive
• has to be competition so not all individuals are equal
• some survive longer than others.
Transformation; Lamarck, 1809
• Most influential pre-Darwin evolutionist
-ideas of transformation, first to discuss change- different from present (species)
• Non-Darwinian features:
Inheritance of acquired characteristics
Orthogenesis-transformation, alignment of organisms accoding to complexity.
Vitalism-self directed, direct their own evolution (darvin said its random), self motivated not random
• populations change over generations.
• Traits are characteristics that are gained in the life time of an individual-passed on to offspring.
• Developed over time.
• Charles Darwin, 1809-1882
• Alfred Wallace, 1823-1913-co publication of linnaeus.
• selection is the key to evolution-expedition to amazon.
• Struggle for existence means that those individuals with favorable variations survive & reproduce
• Biological variation within all species
• All species capable of reproducing at a faster rate than food supply
• Competition for limited resources
no species were identical
borrowed malthus' idea, com