January 06, 2013
WHAT is ANTHROPOLOGY?
The study of the human experience from multiple perspective.
The biocultural approach.
Culture human behavior that is learned and shared by members of a society
The central paradigm of all subfield anthropology
Four subfields of anthropology:
Ethnographies description of human behavior through the observation of the human
Immerse themselves in a culture
Ethnology the crosscultural examination of ethnographies
Study of human speech and language
Language▯ reflection of our culture
Linguists look at language and its origin Archeology
The study of material remains left by cultures, primarily of the past
CRM▯ cultural resource management
First Nations advocacy ▯ returning FN individuals
biological and physical anthropology:
Biological▯ study of humans and their relatives within the framework of evolution and its
relationship to culture.
Paleoanthropology▯ looking at human ancestry, study of human evolution through fossil
Molecular anthropology▯ Genetics▯
Primatology▯ study of nonhuman primate behavior & biology,
Primate paleontology▯ study of primate fossil record
Osteology▯ modern human skeletons ▯ human bone biology and physiology
*palaeo ▯ old
palaeodemography ▯ study of populations
palaeopathology▯ determination and quantification of morbid conditions that leave evidence
on bone. Human trauma= (anti, peri, post—mortem)
Forensic anthropology▯ recovery and analysis of sketelonized human remains for law
enforcement agencies, particularly in the identification of victims
3 INVESTIGATIVE AREAS
Application of anthropological principles and research in other fields
Practical use of knowledge and expertise of anthropology
January 09, 2014
ANT101 Biology & Evolution
A Brief History of the Development of Thought on Human Evolution
1. Origin Myths▯ places human as the ultimate creation, present in every culture
All human cultures seem to have a theory of belief surrounding the origins of humans
Universal Explanations (3 Elements)
How humans came into existence
Relationship of humans & other animals
How humans are the ultimate products of creation 2. Fixity of Species▯ the way the humans today are the reflection of how they were created.
Species, once created can never change
Reflected powerful religious system in Europe
Accepted that all living things created by God
3. Great Chain of Being▯ humans exist on a hierarchal continuum where humans are at the top of
1 proposed by Aristotle in 4 century BC▯ stills adhere to the fixity of the species while identifying
human as animals
All animals arranged in a hierarchy that progressed from simplest to most complex
Humans at top of hierarchy
4. Genus & Species
John Ray , 17 century ▯ came up the term “genus and species”
SPECIES▯ individuals that can produce a valuable offspring.
Saw that certain plants & animals could be distinguished from other groups by their ability
reproduce with one another and produce viable offspring
Placed reproductively isolated groups of individuals in a category called “species”
Recognized that some species shared similarities called “genus”
5. Systema Natura
Linnaeus, 1735 Father of Taxonomy
He organized organisms into specific categories, kind, etc.
Classified living things into a hierarchy of taxonomic categories Used binomial nomenclature
Standardized Ray’s species & genus, & added class & order
Still a Creationist
Charles Lyell, 1833
The geological process occurs over a period of time and in cycle.
Processes shaping the earth are the same today as they were in the past – uniform & continuous in
Time scale of the earth is in millions of years
Still a creationist Creationist
Set the time of the Earth from thousand of years, to millions of years.
7. Survival of the Fittest;
Thomas Malthus, 1798
Human populations multiply geometrically
Food resources grow arithmetically
Human populations will out grow resources unless there is a constant check to maintain a certain
Not everyone born can possible survive
There must be something in the population which maintains the size of the population = THE
SURVIVAL OF THE FITTEST. Creationist
8. Transformation; Lamarck, 1809
the first one to not believe in creationism.
Most influential preDarwin evolutionist
NonDarwinian features:Inheritance of acquired characteristics