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lec4 primates.doc

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Sherry Fukuzawa

ANT101 PRIMATES: Our Contemporary Relatives & The Basics of Primatology PRIMATOLOGY  The Study of non-human primate biology & behavior Analogies  Structures that are superficially similar  Share a similar function  Built from different parts  Do not pass through similar stages during embryonic development  organisms do not share a common ancestor Homologies  Structures possessed by 2 different organisms that arise in a similar fashion  Pass through similar stages during embryonic development  organisms that share a common ancestor  May serve different functions All Primates: Kingdom Animalia Phylum Chordata subphylum Vertebrata Class Mammalia Order Primate  Primate Characteristics 1. Arboreal 2. Stereoscopic vision 3. Binocular vision (forward facing eyes) 4. Color vision 5. Fovea centralis 6. Highly developed sense of touch 7. Enlarged, complex brain 8. Retention of less specialized dentition 9. Primate Skeleton  Skull features  High vaulted cranium  Forward shifted foramen magnum  Reduced snout  Post orbital bar (enclosed eye socket)  Retention of Clavicle (collarbone)  brachiation  Pentadactyly (possessing 5 digits)  Prehensibility 10.Reproduction & Care of Young  Able to breed throughout the year  Reduction in the number of offspring born at one time to a female  Longer period of infant dependency on the mother Suborder: 1. Strepsirhini Lemurs & lorises)  Primitive  Developed olfactory  Rhinarium  Long snout  Dental comb  Grooming claw  Leaping & clinging Infraorder: Lemuriformes Superfamily: a. Lemuroidea (lemur)  Madagascar  Lorisoidea (loris)  Africa, S & E Asia  Nocturnal 2. Haplorhini (tarsiers, monkeys, apes & humans) Compared to strepsirhini: • Generally larger body size • Larger brain • Rounded skull • Eyes rotated to the front • Bony plate at back of eye orbit • No rhinarium • Chisel like incisors • Increased parental care • Increased maturation • More mutual grooming Infraorder: 1. Tarsiformes (tarsiers) Haplorrhine most like the lemur Primitive features • Small body; grooming claw; large ears; unfused mandible • Nocturnal insectivore • Stable pair bonds • Haplorrhine features • No rhinarium • Eye sockets enclosed in bone • Unique features • Enormous eyes • Rotate head 180 degrees • Elongated tarsal bone to leap 2.Anthropoidea (all monkeys, apes and humans) Parvorder: 1.Platyrrhini (new world monkey) • South & Central America • Wide range of size, diet, ecological adaptation • Broad flaring noses with outward nostrils (platyrrhine = flat nose) • Almost exclusively arboreal • Long prehensile tails • 3 PMs 2. Catarrhini (old world monkey, apes, humans) Supe
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