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Lecture 4

ANT102H5 Lecture 4: Lecture 4 - ANT102

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Jack Sidnell

Lecture 4 Thursday, May 18, 2017 Coded vs. Inferred When we are talking and listening we are taking a sort of narrow band that comes through all the linguistic code in order to react and respond Coding information is very costly because we interact all the time and talk so fact, we have to put it in a word or sentence and there is a bit of a bottleneck because we cant put all of it together Common Ground pointers assumptions about what the other one knows and the pointer assumptions of what the pointer knows Im going to sneeze What is the inference that is not noticed in the code? (RELEVANCE) right now! Hes a dog. What is the inference? (QUALITY) He behaves like a dog John has two children. What is the inference? (QUANTITY) John has children and that is it. Paul Grice (one of the most important philosophers) tried to explain is there some kind of system in making these kinds of inferences? He said we need to have a better description of it. Logic and Conversation Described the cooperative principle as a basis for inference. Grice broke these down into a series of Maxims (Basis of inference NOT rules): 1. Maxim of Quality Be truthful 2. Maxim of Quantity Make your contribution as informative as is required 3. Maxim of Relevance Be relevant 4. Maxim of Manner Be clear, be brief, be orderly Linguistic encoding We communicate much more than we say Only a thin band of info is encoded The rest is derived as inference Properties of the linguistic code a. Semanticity Reference Means that linguistic signs have meaning Meanings of linguistic signs are typically quite specific unlike the meaning of a wink or nonlexical item such as uhm etc. b. Arbitrariness It is a way of saying there is no relationship between the thing and what it stands for It is fixed by convention Any word has two parts: Form, i.e. Dog (composed of 3 sounds) and Meaning
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