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Ant102 all notes2013 (some weeks missing).pdf

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Victor Barac

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1. English: The boy drank the water. (SVO) 2. Russian: Malcik vypil vodu. (SVO) 3. Turkish: Çoçuk suyu içti. (SOV) 4. Arabic: Šaraba lwaladu lma?a. (VSO) Lexical Semantics Study of meaning Most basic level of semantics=semants Key concepts define semantics: 1. Referent - the thing that words refer to (objects, state of mind, imaginary) 2. Referential vs. grammatical meaning - some words have real referent others not ie. The, of, about no real meaning of their own 3. Shifting referents - ie. You 1 person vs. you whole class. We and they 4. Hyponyms - generic term ie. The colour red includes: scarlet, crimson, etc.; candy; dogs. They have a hierarchy 5. Synonyms - establish equivalency of words 6. Homonyms - same sound with different meaning ie. Foul vs fowl; knows vs nose 7. Antonyms - words that have opposite meanings. Ie. Alive and dead; big and little; parent and child Semantic properties 1. Semantic domains -a category. Sets of words that share a common meaning. Carries a lot of meaning. There's a hierarchy of semantic domains ex. Mammals (different criteria that define what a mammal is) but a mammal is a class. All orders of mammals are semantic domains of different hierarchy. 2. Markedness- Feeds to the fact that in groups of word you have a default word (unmarked) and a definitive term (stands out). Ex. Gender, or female gender.; race …clean vs unclean, prince vs princess. 3. Distinctive feature analysis- Tool -can make your own, To show own the meaning of word is construction ex next slide- meaning of cat Distinctive Feature Analysis CAT LION COW SNAKE Animal + + + + Mammal + + + – Carnivore + + – + Predator + + – + Pet + – – – Whiskers + + – – Edible – – + – Meows + – – – Cat word refers to a concept. Attributing distinctive feature when see a cat. An animal, mammal etc. This is an example of how concepts are created then brain automatically attributes it hen sees a cat. Semantics 1: Understanding & Interpretation 2 types of communication 1. Denotation 1. Meaning is: primary, logical, informative- literal meaning. The surface meaning, logical, informative. Ex. Medical prescription 2. Aim is descriptive accuracy 2. Connotation ANT102 Page 3
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