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ANT241Y5 (28)
Lecture 15

Lecture 15.docx

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University of Toronto Mississauga
Alexander Von Gernet

Lecture 15: The emergence of the Metis - Trade between Natives and Newcomers - trade involves bartering and goods – no transfer of money. Money useless in trade for centuries. - Trading posts – physical structures set up by newcomers – encourage natives to come trade - What the newcomers traded to the natives: European goods - Glass beads – imp to native people because they had spiritual significance. -even before Europeans arrived, port’s crystals were seen in same way. -copper kettles – - gunflints -fire steels – precursor to matches. Strike it against rocks to make sparks. -flintlock gun - axes (iron trade axe) -Brazil tobacco -shipped in “carrots”(cigar shaped packages) and “twists” (islam ‘twists’ – leaves twisted into long ropes, cut into smaller pieces) -from Brazil to Portugal to England to North America - What the natives traded in return: furs - trade was global and extremely imp to the economies of many nations> -source of Canadian economy for centuries - from17th century until about mid 19 century - Fur Trade - Beaver fur used a lot - Beaver lodge – opening under water – defensive strategy against predators - Steel tracks – imp way of acquiring beaver - What are all the beaver furs for? (why were Europeans after beaver fur?) - Hats - European furrier operations – factories called furriers. - First, long guard airs were plucked out and discarded. Then, the soft undercoat was shaved off the skin and placed on a hurl – a table. - hatter making felt by vibrating beaver fur on a hurl - best hats made from beaver – different styles -Hat protocols – how to put on your hat and how to take it off. -18 century gentlemen with a muff (a scarf-like thing..) - Rival Fur Trading Interests - French (1603-1763) – a main fur trading interest until 1763, put end to French regime and brought British in - Hudson’s Bay Company (1760 – present) – English gave monopoly over trade in all lands that drain into Hudson’s bay - North West Company (1779-1821) – Montreal-based, primarily Scottish -in 1821 – HBC had hostile takeover of north west company - had to go further and f
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