Lecture 15: The emergence of the Metis
- Trade between Natives and Newcomers
- trade involves bartering and goods – no transfer of money. Money useless in trade for
- Trading posts – physical structures set up by newcomers – encourage natives to come trade
- What the newcomers traded to the natives: European goods
- Glass beads – imp to native people because they had spiritual significance.
-even before Europeans arrived, port’s crystals were seen in same way.
-copper kettles –
-fire steels – precursor to matches. Strike it against rocks to make sparks.
- axes (iron trade axe)
-shipped in “carrots”(cigar shaped packages) and “twists” (islam ‘twists’ – leaves twisted into
long ropes, cut into smaller pieces)
-from Brazil to Portugal to England to North America
- What the natives traded in return: furs
- trade was global and extremely imp to the economies of many nations>
-source of Canadian economy for centuries
- from17th century until about mid 19 century
- Fur Trade
- Beaver fur used a lot
- Beaver lodge – opening under water – defensive strategy against predators
- Steel tracks – imp way of acquiring beaver
- What are all the beaver furs for? (why were Europeans after beaver fur?)
- European furrier operations – factories called furriers.
- First, long guard airs were plucked out and discarded. Then, the soft undercoat was shaved off
the skin and placed on a hurl – a table.
- hatter making felt by vibrating beaver fur on a hurl
- best hats made from beaver – different styles
-Hat protocols – how to put on your hat and how to take it off.
-18 century gentlemen with a muff (a scarf-like thing..)
- Rival Fur Trading Interests
- French (1603-1763) – a main fur trading interest until 1763, put end to French regime and
brought British in
- Hudson’s Bay Company (1760 – present) – English gave monopoly over trade in all lands that drain into Hudson’s bay
- North West Company (1779-1821) – Montreal-based, primarily Scottish
-in 1821 – HBC had hostile takeover of north west company
- had to go further and f