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ANT313 (Nov 27) - Pulling it all together.docx

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University of Toronto Mississauga
Gary Crawford

ANT313 - Lectures show the most important issues and while reading the textbook, you should concentrate on the similar issues as well - Give some background info before evaluating the question and answering - Fish trap - Grain in samples - Without flotations, we would’ve thought that Ainu was hunter and gatherers but we found lots of domesticated grains so we know that they’re different from Jomon who were mainly hunter and gatherers so it’s not exactly a continuity o Broke the link with Jomon o Hunter, gatherer, fishers, and FARMERS (crops from all over NE Asia and SW Asia) - Ancestral Ainu Subsistence o A mixed economy o Based on agriculture in the Ishikari Plain around Sapparo (where all of our research was carried out; likely Hokkaido wide) o Crops include nearly all important crops found in northeast Asia - Human biology o Research in 1970s showed Ainu are biologically close to Japanese o Not Europeans - 1990s research o Ainu are similar to Jomon and Archaic Asians o Dual structure model of Japanese populations o Biological descendents of Jomon - Current state of research o Human osteology demonstration links to Jomon (1988 – 2004) o Genetics confirms links with Asian populations but not to Han Chinese, Koreans and non-Ainu Japanese - Revised historical sequence o Yayoi inserting themselves from the south and interacting with Jomon o It goes into becoming Tohoku Yayoi and eventually Satsumon while interacting with other parts of SW Japan (Kofun and Nara) o epiJomon (continuation of Jomon in Hokkaido) o Satsumon move into Hokkaido as escape from warfare o Ainu appearing o Dual populations (1000 BC) indigenous - New view of Ainu o Had agriculture, so are not hunter-gatherers of the northern forest o Similar to other cultures of 8 to 14 century in Japan o Biologically Asian o Not “former aboriginal peoples” but “aboriginal people” Dual Structure Model - Origin of the Japanese o What do we mean by this question? o Two ways to look at it: biologically and culturally - Hanihara’s view o People in NE Japan; from biological standpoint, they were distinct o Not use the word race - In ANT313 o Culture considered in depth o Critically evaluated details of bot
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