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ANT313 (Nov 6) - Erlitou & Shang.docx

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University of Toronto Mississauga
Gary Crawford

ANT313 - Erlitou and Shang - Erlitou stone tools o 42% of tools are agricultural - Erlitou - Pit with human bones o Called it a sacrificial pit? o Not just a regular burial because no grave goods were found with it - Wheel vehicles? o Wheel chariots and wagon - City wall excavation Daxigu site, Zhengzhou o The unique earth that is so fine and pounded to make walls - Wheat is stunted over city wall - Erlitou (Liu and Chen) o First large urban centre in China  There are some in Longshan period, but there’s no palace, craft specialization, jewelry, etc; o Significant bronze making o Making bronze ritual vessels o Incredible influence of theocracy o Link through family and lineages; shamanism o Phase 1: large settlement  Rapid nucleation – migration o Phase 2: urbanization begins  3 times the area of phase 1; large, complex buildings; o Phase 3: urbanization peak  Rammed earth walls built around palatial area; turquoise item production; bronze ritual vessels first appear (the only place in China at this time); palace renewal (6 new buildings), palace area more exclusively administrative; o Phase 4: declining (1800 – 1500 BC); erlig
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