BIO152H5 Lecture Notes - Lecture 15: Small Population Size, Genetic Diversity, Allele Frequency

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23 Nov 2016
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Lecture 14 November 17, 2016
o Diversity
o Genetic diversity within species- intraspecific variation
o Species diversity interspecific variation, species richness, relative abundance
o Ecosystem diversity
o Small population size
o Population bottleneck
o Founder effects
o Genetic drift
o Result: decrease in genetic diversity
o Genetic consequences of small populations
o Inbreeding
Breeding among relatives
o Inbreeding depression
Decrease in fitness due to homozygosity increasing and heterozygosity
decreasing
Can increase rate of natural selection exposes disadvantage recessive
alleles in the homozygous phenotype
Reduction in survival and fertility
Many recessive alleles: represent loss of function mutation
Certain genes involved in fighting disease have a heterozygous advantage
(ex: sickle cell anemia and malaria)
High juvenile mortality
Low sperm count
Increased susceptibility to disease
o Fixation of deleterious genes
o Why does inbreeding not cause evolution?
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