BIO153H5 Lecture Notes - Polyphyly, Plasmopara Viticola, Macellum

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Published on 1 Feb 2013
Chapter 29 Lecture
Protists 1
The last domain
Origins of the nucleus
Where did the mitochondria come from?
Term comes from Latin windows
Refers to multiple small holes that exists in small groups
Sends out appendages for feeding and movement
Biology can be Beautiful
Samples of diatoms (organism that build shelves)
Every one of these species have different shapes
Protists are at the Base of Aquatic Food Chains
Fruits that uses energy from the sun primary producers
Increasingly larger organisms
Bacteria is a huge part of the primary producers
The Rest of the Course Deals With Eukaryotes
Protists All e ukaryotes that are not green plants fungi and animals
Protists are a …
o Monophyletic group not a monophyletic group because they
wouldn’t pass a slip test, there is no single ancestor for protists only
o Paraphyletic group includes ancestors plus other organism the
tree includes all the descends of a common ancestor, and other
o Polyphyletic group multi-stem tree
We Recognize Eight Major Prokaryote Lineages
Give samples of characteristics that can distinguish the groups
Eukaryotes have a Membrane Bound Nucleus
Nuclear envelope originated from fold of the plasma membrane
Ancestor with chromosomes
Plasma membrane folds in
Formation of nuclear envelope
Start with a cell that is structured
o DNA wall, cell membrane
Fold comes in from the cell wall
Aggregated around the genetic material (DNA)
Nucleus allowed for Innovation in Gene Expression
Archaea and Bacteria: Transcription and translation occur in same area
Eukaryotes: transcription and translation are separated
o Different forms of RNA processing
o Gene expression could be better controlled
Nuclei in eukaryotes are very diverse
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