Major one is the formation of disulfide bonds. Disulfide bonds needs to be formed in correct spatial organization. Proteins in disulfide bonds are usually exported out of the cell. Protein disfulfide isomerases (pdi): in the er, breaks disulfide bonds and and forms the correct one. Catalytically inactive proteins until they are modified in the er. These proteins usually sit in the plasma membrane and it is meant to be oriented so the sugar molecules face the extracellular environment. Dolichol phosphate: hydrophobic molecule; integral component of the membrane; attached is a single phosphate; Cluster of proteins sent to the goldi apparatus and this movement is mediated by transport vesicles. Export process involves the formation of a membrane bud; the pinching of this bid forms a spherical transport vesicle. From the endoplasmic reticulum to the vesicle buds. Sequential series of steps that this transport vesicle will mediate.