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Lecture 1

BIO152H5 Lecture 1: BIO152 - Lecture 1

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University of Toronto Mississauga
Maria Arts

BIO152 Hadia Saeed th May 9 2017 Lecture 1 – Science and Biology Outline of the Lesson • Defining biology • Properties of living organisms – looking at unifying things • Levels of biological organization • Unifying themes in biology • Classifying the diversity of life • Biology is a science: the scientific method • Experimentation and hypothesis testing – emphasized What is Biology? • The scientific study of the biodiversity of life and living things • Microscopic biological organisms, huge animals, trees and plant life, etc. • Inquiry of living organisms and the nature of life What is Life? • Living organisms share basic properties 1. Order – cellular aspect 2. Energy processing 3. Regulation – homeostasis 4. Reproduction – inheritance and genetic control 5. Growth and development 6. Response to the environment –different for each organism 7. Evolutionary adaptation • Properties of life 1. Every organism has a particular cellular order – single vs. multi cellular 2. All living processes have chemical reactions in order to do what they do (producing sugars, making nectar, etc.) 3. Regulation of body temperatures – single celled also because of different inner and outer environment 4. Reproduction – growing and developing in order to reproduce – allows a species to strive otherwise will go extinct 5. Growth of organism in order to reproduce 6. Reacting to things in the environment – being able to respond to what is around 7. Successfully surviving through adaptation and evolving to strive in environment Theme: New Properties Emerge at Each Level in the Biological Hierarchy • Biology is organized into a hierarchy of levels o Simplest to the most complex BIO152 Hadia Saeed th May 9 2017 o Molecule (simplest and smallest) Cell  Tissue  Organ  Organism  Population  Community  Biosphere (most complex with ecosystems) • Each higher level contains novel properties not present at the simpler level of organization • Biosphere is complex with lots of ecosystems  Ecosystem’s contain different communities Complex community with a variety of organisms  Populations made of different organisms in a community  Different organisms classified according to traits  Organisms are the variety of living things  Organ and Organ systems are within organisms to help it work  Tissues made up of cells in the organ  cells functions to make things work  organelles made of cells  molecules make up all aspect of matter Addressing the Complexity of Biological Systems • Reductionism – approach of study where you reduce complex system to simpler components – reducing complexity but looking at one portion o Advantage – makes it easier to do a study • Systems Biology; approach that focuses on a whole biological system o Answer much larger scale question but reduction is needed for details o Study interactions among the system’s parts o A change in one variable can affect many components of the whole system o Ultimate aim: to answer large-scale questions Theme: Organisms Interact With One Another and With the Physical Environment • Not in isolation with one another – interact • Ex. plants release CO2 and we breathe as humans and benefit – cycling of chemical nutrients, rainfall, leafs falling and fruit growing which benefits animals • Everything is interconnected and dependable Theme: Life Requires Energy Transfer and Transformation • Photosynthesis – supporting pillar for trophic levels – plants are producers ad transfer light to glucose • Ex. monkey eats fruit from plant which gives the monkey energy and converts into chemical energy to be able to adapt and survive in environment Theme: Structure and Function are correlated at all Levels of Biological Organization • Organisms are well adapted and structure translates to function • Ex. birds are strong but light in order to fly - structure and function are well correlated Theme: The Cell is the Organism’s Basic Unit of Structure and Function • Unicellular and multicellular organisms • Cell – highly structure compartment BIO152 Hadia Saeed th May 9 2017 • Prokaryotic – don’t have nucleus so DNA is free and not bounded o Often a bacterial cell • Eukaryotic - have a bounded nuclear membrane with DNA o Highly structured with membrane and some ions to go in and some to go out o Variety of organelles to allow functioning o Plant and animal cell • Cell Theory – proposes that all organisms are made of cells and all cells come from pre-existing cells o First view of cells; Robert Hooke in 1665 o Anton Van Leeuwenhoek – first to view single-celled organisms as ‘animalcules’ in pond water (paramecium) • Modern Cell Theory o All living organisms are made up of one or more cells o All cells arise from pre-existing cells o The cell is the fundamental unit of structure and function in all living organisms o Energy flow (metabolism) occurs in cells o Cells contain hereditary information Theme: The Continuity of Life is based on Heritable Information Theme: Feedback Mechanisms Regulate Biological Systems Evolution – the Core Theme of Biology • Theory of evolution – heritable characteristics of species change over time • Evolution occurs when individuals with certain preferred traits produce more offspring than individuals lacking these traits • Theory of Evolution by Natural Selection o 1858: Darwin proposed that all species are related by descent from a common ancestor o Species are related to one another, but change over
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