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BIO204 Physio Lecture note 3.docx

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Ingo Ensminger

BIO204 Nov.23/2011 Chapter 43: animal nutrition  Animals that eat other animals are called heterotrophs.  Large packets of food that enter the mouth must be reduced to monomers that can be absorbed by cells and enter the bloodstream. Digestive system analogous to oil refinery or lumber mill. 43.1 Nutritional requirements  Animals get the chemical energy and carbon–containing building blocks they need from carbohydrates and fats.  Animals also require other nutrients – substances an organism needs to remain alive.  Food is any material that contains nutrients.  when an animal takes in enough neutritents to perform day to day tasks and stays healthy it is said to be in nutritional balance. Disease results when individual is out of nutritional balance.  Understanding which nutrients an individual needs, and in what amounts, are basic issues in research on animal nutrition. Meeting basic needs  Recommended Daily Allowances (RDAs) specify the amount of each essential nutrient— including essential amino acids, vitamins, essential elements, and electrolytes—required to meet the needs of practically all healthy people.  Proteins provice aa that are used to synthesize the body’s own polypeptide s and are sometimes oxidized to provide energy. Essential amino acids cannot be synthesized by humans and must be obtained from food.  Vitamins are organic compounds that are vital for health but are required only in minute amounts. Have variety of roles; several fcn as coenzymes  Electrolytes are inorganic ions that influence osmotic balance and are required for normal membrane function.  Essential elements are inorganic substances that fulfill a variety of functions not performed by electrolytes. Often they are important compoenents of cofactors or structural materials.  In nutrition research, the Calorie is a unit of energy.  If a single helping of food contains 150 Calories, then 150 kilocalories (kcal) of energy is released when the food is completely oxidized by cells.  Lipids yield 9 kcal/gram when completely oxidized, versus 4 kcal/gram for carbohydrates and proteins. Can nutrition enhance athletic performance?  At first thought lipids provided the fuels for extended physical labour or athletic activity. Logical because FA provide 2x as much energ
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