Chapter 43: animal nutrition
Animals that eat other animals are called heterotrophs.
Large packets of food that enter the mouth must be reduced to monomers that can be absorbed by cells
and enter the bloodstream. Digestive system analogous to oil refinery or lumber mill.
43.1 Nutritional requirements
Animals get the chemical energy and carbon–containing building blocks they need from carbohydrates
Animals also require other nutrients – substances an organism needs to remain alive.
Food is any material that contains nutrients.
when an animal takes in enough neutritents to perform day to day tasks and stays healthy it is said to be
in nutritional balance. Disease results when individual is out of nutritional balance.
Understanding which nutrients an individual needs, and in what amounts, are basic issues in research on
Meeting basic needs
Recommended Daily Allowances (RDAs) specify the amount of each essential nutrient—
including essential amino acids, vitamins, essential elements, and electrolytes—required to meet the
needs of practically all healthy people.
Proteins provice aa that are used to synthesize the body’s own polypeptide s and are sometimes oxidized
to provide energy. Essential amino acids cannot be synthesized by humans and must be obtained from
Vitamins are organic compounds that are vital for health but are required only in minute amounts. Have
variety of roles; several fcn as coenzymes
Electrolytes are inorganic ions that influence osmotic balance and are required for normal membrane
Essential elements are inorganic substances that fulfill a variety of functions not performed by
electrolytes. Often they are important compoenents of cofactors or structural materials.
In nutrition research, the Calorie is a unit of energy.
If a single helping of food contains 150 Calories, then 150 kilocalories (kcal) of energy is released when
the food is completely oxidized by cells.
Lipids yield 9 kcal/gram when completely oxidized, versus 4 kcal/gram for carbohydrates and proteins.
Can nutrition enhance athletic performance?
At first thought lipids provided the fuels for extended physical labour or athletic activity. Logical
because FA provide 2x as much energ