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Lecture #4 Notes

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University of Toronto Mississauga
Maria Arts

Lecture #4 Slide3: - life history: is an organisms lifetime pattern of growth, development, and reproduction involves adaptations ( physiological, morphological, adaptations to environment etc) - an organisms decisions are going to be a balance between the costs and benefits Slide 4: - as soon as you put energy into one aspect, then it comes at a cost of putting energy into another e.g. putting energy into reproduction, cost is growth ( they are smaller) - why males are usually bigger Slide 5: - sexual reproduction: fusion of haploid egg and sperm to form diploid zygote major source of genetic variation due to the recombination of chromosomes during gamete production - asexual reproduction produces offspring without fusion of egg and gamete Slide 6: - modes of asexual reproduction rhizomes: strawberry plants splitting in two : paramecium budding: hydra parthenogenesis: aphids - organisms that rely on heavily on asexual reproduction can revert to sexual reproduction usually due to environmental change e.g. hydra- sexual reprod pg. 2 Slide 1: Asexual reproduction: - costs: low genetic variability in the population maybe unable to adapt to a change in environmental conditions - benefits have to outweigh the costs Slide 2: Sexual Reproduction: - costs: parents only contribute one half of their genes specialized reproductive organs energetically expensive
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