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Department
Biology
Course
BIO211H5
Professor
Jessica Hawthorn
Semester
Fall

Description
BIO211 th Sept 19 Deep Time Time - deep time: earth is very old, and the geologic time scale is vast - relative dating: o order of deposition of a body of rock based on position  uses lithostratigraphy, biostratigraphy, magnestostatigraphy (polarity), chemostratigraphy ( o answers: what age are the rocks? - absolute dating: o a number representing the time a body of rock was deposited  radiometric dating, fission- track dating o answers: how old are the rocks? Stratigraphy - study of stratified rocks, especially their geometric relations, compositions, origins, and age relations - stratigraphic units: o strata: rock units distinguished by some physical, chemical, or palaeontological property  units of time are based on ages of strata o stratigraphic section: outcrop of a formation showing a continuous vertical sequence o correlation: correspondence between geographically separated parts of a stratigraphic unit Units of Time - geochronologic (time) units: interval during which a time-rock unit is formed o early and late - chronostratigraphic (time-rock) units: all the strata in the world deposited during a particular interval of time o upper and lower Biostratigraphy - correlation of rock unites based on fossil content - stratigraphic range: total vertical interval in which a species occurs, from lowermost to uppermost occurrence - biostratigraphic unit: called a biozone (or just a zone) o rock unit defined and characterized by fossil content o lower and upper boundaries based on the ranges of one or more fossils - index fossils: o abundant o easily identified o geographically widespread  correlate rocks over large areas o occurs in many kinds of sedimentary rocks  can be found in many places o shorter stratigraphic range  more precise correlation - sets of co-occurring fossils (assemblages) can be used like index fossils Magnetostratigraphy - magnetic properties of rocks are used to characterize and correlate rock units - polarity of earth’s magnetic field is recorded in rocks when they crystallize or settle from water - chron: polarity-based time-rock unit o normal interval o reversed interval Lithostratigraphy - lithostratigraph
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