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Lecture November 20, 2012.docx

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Mairi Cowan

November, 20, 2012- Intro to EU History Condorcet - Subject human life to mathematical rule - Moral and political science just as precise as physical science - Doubt about French Revolution - Argued for expansive definition for rights of man o Apply to Jews, people of colour and women o Comprehensive system of education o Joined French 1791 French legislative assembly o Wanted King to be put on formal trial, and voted against execution o Fled, but was arrested during the Terror and was found dead after being arrested for 2 days French Revolution - Promised liberty and rights but brought terror - A lot of areas in EU underwent revolts o These spread overseas to the Americas - Significant in world history o Brought new political culture to France based on values of citizenship, nationhood and some kind of democracy - Divided it no several phases; check powerpoint o 1789-1791 o 1792-1794 o 1795-1799 o 1799-1804 o 1804-1815 - What was France like leading to revolution? o Population was growing, many ways France didn’t have well-ordered economy, had range of regional economies that didn’t link up, complex system of taxation o Seven Years War 1756-163 o Deficit due to the American Revolution where France supported them  Cost French government A LOT of money o Louis and Marie-Antoinette failed to help during the deficit o Deficit and rulers and social crisis  Population was growing, 28 million by time of revolution  Did not keep pace with growth, food supply dangerously short  1780’s several years of bad weather for farmers  1788, harvest failed in several parts of france  Price of bread soared  Conspiracy theories that minister trying to keep the price high as possible  Led to bread riots  Bread riots with political crisis  Real crisis; late spring early summer; dangerous time for government of agrarian economy, most vulnerable period concerning food security  In 1788, failing harvest, Louis XVI, estates general meeting in the following May 1789  Estates General; representative from 3 estates  Hadn’t meet in 175 years, but king facing a crisis so called the meeting  First issue; debating over procedure, how they should vote o Option of voting as a separate order, clergy and nobility could outvote the third estate o Or every person gets a vote, third estate could still be defeated o But king had doubled the members in Third Estate  So if voted individually, third estate could get its way  Third Estate preferred this, and represented 95% of population o June 1789, Third Estate on its own 3 crucial decisions  1) Decided they would vote unilaterally, invited deputies from other estates to join them, vote individually  2) Instead of calling themselves “Estates General”, they called themselves “National Assembly”  Were deciding between lots of names, National Assembly was easier to remember and pick apart  This title didn’t say anything about relationship with people and Monarch, perfect name  Suggested this body could act in name of the whole nation  3) Tennis Court Oath  Proclaiming national sovereignty and they had the right to exercise it  1789 beginning of French Revolution  King recognized what was going on, desperate attempt to get the National Assembly under his order, sent troops in the city, but this made the people nervous, but a whole lot of troops in Paris  July 14, Storming of the Bastille o Symbol of monarchal authority o Believed Bastille had a lot of ammunition, so they wanted it o Aristocratic people also joined the revolution, military also included nobles and soldiers that favoured revolution o News spread of the fall of Bastille and reovlts broke about large part in towns o Also reovlts in countryside, sparked because of a great fear  Believed aristocrats would starve the peasants, so they broke into their houses and attacked them and took the doucments of feudalism and destroyed them o Deputies creating a new France from bottom up  4-5 August 1789, National Assembly  Did away with seignural dues, hunting rights, sales of offices, tithes, all the special privilages that distinguished one estate from another, instead them put in palce a system on merticracy, brought principles of enlightenment into law  Declaration Rights of Man and Citizen 26 August 1789  Declared all men rights, now just French men, but any man to liberty, property, security, equality before the law  Olympe de Gouges 1748-1793  Declaration of Rights of Women and Citizen 1791 o Response to and critique of Declaration of rights of man and citizen  Moved to Paris, changed her name and made her seem like a high aristocrat  National Assembly decided to sell land from Catholic Church because they owned a lot of land  In return, the state assume responsibility of paying clergy and providing for the poo  Summer 1789, broad consensus that France should have a constitutional Monarchy of what Britain had  A king, but whose powers limited by written constitution and subject to elected members of parliaments  1790 anniversary of Storming of Bastille, people took oath  1791, many people given up idea of constitutional monarchy, took too long, now want a republic o One reason; simple change of location of where National Assembly met  When moved to Paris from Versailles, crowds moved into debating chambers and would call out their own ideas and tone of debates changed, no more long, sensitive, but became short, violent o Another reason; role played by Emigres, those who left France, from outside borders of France they agitated for military revolution to put down the revolution  Inspired by Rousseau, sa
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