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HIS241 Lecture 1 - September 10, 2013

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September 10, 2013 Lecture 1 - The ancien regime, also known as the old regime (A period in French history - 1500-1789) th - The 19 century: between 1789-1910 (chronological timeline) - Arguably, the most important century, not just in Europe, but in the history of man - During this period. Europeans made extraordinary change, changes we identify with modernity - Europe becomes more modern, not just political, but cultural, social and economic developments Eric Hobsbawm: “dual thvolution” - Important 19 century historian - A period in which humanity made some of its greatest strides - Some of most revolutionary times in history - Looks at period and asks what is so revolutionary about it - “Why is this period in history so significant? - He identifies…  1. French Revolution: this is a period of revolution o Watershed in European history  2. Industrial Revolution o The French Revolution was a major watershed in political history o Major revolution in economic (as well as social and cultural) history - Calls these two revolutions the dual revolution (French and industrial) - Two revolutions cause fundamental changes in how Europeans related to each other, as well as the rest of the world. - French Revolution began in 1789  1789 marks the end of the old regime (regime of king and nobility working together) o End of old political system o In some sense, it ends a system of government by Xkings and aristocracy o Roman Empire developed around the time of Christ  End a period of ruling which existed since the time of Christ  System created by aristocracy, supported by the Church was ended when the French people cut the king’s head off (1700 years of system)  The monarch gets his legitimacy from the voice of the people and the Church o By virtue of the Church and by virtue of God o Widely believed that the King held council with God and consulted with God o Basically, the King didn’t have to consult with anyone b/c he did it with God September 10, 2013  Absolutist mind o The king doesn’t have to look to anyone because God makes him legit so he can do anything.  King has obligations to rule for his people o “Father to the people” o Rule in the best interest of the people o The king cannot act like a tyrant because he rules in the name of God, then he must act in the best interest of the people. o Should at least give the appearance that he’s acting moral o Must also balance interest of the nobility and people  Palace of Versailles o Center of the earth  Louis XIV = “The Sun King”  Politics centered at court  Feudal type of government o Lord rules over serfs o Agricultural economy o Feudal economy o French Revolution overthrows this o Confront the French and all Europeans with a series of questions on what they want  French Revolution introduces ideas that are distinctly modern  July 14, 1789: Bastille  Nationalism: The unthinking love of an imagined community based on language and culture. o One of the ideas introduced by the French Revolution  The saying: “Liberty, Equality, Fraternity” o Th
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