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Lecture 2

HIS241 Lecture 2 - September 17, 2013

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September 17, 2013 Lecture 2 Crane Brinton, Anatomy of Revolution - Interested in the causes, the course and consequences of political and social revolutions - Trying to understand what they all mean - In the 1930s  Writing in the shadow of the Russian Revolution - Looks at the English Revolution first  English Parliamentarians put king on trial and cut off his head  They went back to the principles of ancient Rome and applied it to their time. - Also looks at the French revolution - Stages… 1. Collapse of the Old Order, long and short term causes  About destruction of the ancient regime 2. Moderate political Revolution (1789-1792, France)  Declaration of Human rights? 3. Radical Revolution, reign of Terror (1792-1797)  Taking extreme measures 4. Conservative Counter revolution, Thermidorian Reaction and Napoleon (1797-1815) 5. Results, was it worth it? Return of the Status Quo Pro Ante, Concert of Europe.  Concert of Europe: All of Europe comes together and establishes What is Enlightenment? - About ideas of progress, democracy, secularism, reason - From 1650-1800 - Initiates a new period in history when thinkers and writers come together and look to reason above all else. - Enlightenment is the expression of intellectual maturity - Attainment of knowledge by using one’s reason - Getting to truth by using your own reason without outside influence. - Thinking about one’s own self and bettering society by using one’s own thinking/knowledge - Kant:  It takes courage to think for one’s self  Questioning all authority - Transnational movement by a small group of scholars - They want to remove themselves from religious debate and religious prosecution and talk about things that matter - Gets started as a result of the printing press  The printing press allows for the spread, accumulation and build up of knowledge. - French Philosophers September 17, 2013  Species change over time  Scientific Revolution and Enlightenment undermines God’s rule  Usually called Naturalists  They believe in nature’s ability to cause progress  They have a mechanical view of the universe.  Believes the universe is a clock and this clock has specific principles.  Therefore, they believe they can understand through observation the laws of nature  They believe it’s the present, not the afterlife, that is important  Society becomes secularized  Embrace science.  Entirely anti-religion as they see it as backwards and based on nothing but superstition.  They believe in the perfectibility of the human race - Idea of Enlightenment: Change is good  Reform is a better way to society  Both of these are modern ideas - Before Enlightenment, the idea was to maintain the status quo - Anything to do with innovation was rejected - Men of Enlightenment bring about change through political institution  They want to start reforming the tax system and the monarchy - Francois-Marie Arouet Voltaire, 1694-1778  Becomes one of the most prolific and consequential writers on the Enlightenment  Writes through scientific nationality  Embodies anti-clerical stance against religion  Sees it as an institution that undermines people  Associates religion with dogma  Dogma: A series of opinions that drive beliefs  He goes against anything that supports the supernatural (religion,
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