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Lecture 4

HIS241 Lecture 4 - October 1, 2013

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October 1, 2013 Lecture 4 1789-1792 - Moderate Revolution - Nationality is one of the guiding notions of the French Revolution - French Revolutionaries desacralize monarchy (gross, dirty pictures) - 1791: Public opinion wasn’t very supportive of the monarchy  Showing monarchy to be corrupted institution French Revolution - Louis 16 kind of half and half as he sometimes supported the Revolution and sometimes he didn’t th - Louis 16 also really despised what the revolutionaries were doing to religion  Disagreed to how Church being treated during revolution - Vast majority of French people were conservative, they didn’t like big changes made to their life - Revolutionaries are bringing in more secular and rational state - Bring in change very rapidly - The public begins to lose faith in the monarch Flight to Varrenes, June 21, 1791 - July 1791 - Louis 16 and Marie Antoinette decide to leave France - They don’t get very far, they get to France’s eastern border (Varennes) - Go to central Europe (Austria) b/c Marie Antoinette’s brother is Emperor of Austria  Hoping to put down revolution once and for all - Captured by rebels - This produces public hysteria - - Moderate Revolution - What is guiding them are Enlightenment ideas Edmund Burke, Reflections on the Revolution in France - A fundamental defense of Conservatism - Against French Revolution - Defends monarchy and aristocracy - Only thing liberty is going to bring is tyranny, terror and despotism - Political stability is more important than abstract notions of justice - Social hierarchy is fundamental to stability, people are not born equally - People should be treated equally, but they are not born equally - Causes a huge debate in England on all sides Mary Wollstonecraft - Writes in opposition of Burke - Vindication of the rights of man in 1790 - Counters Burke’s hierarchy view October 1, 2013 - Vindication of the rights of woman - Program for reform - Men and Women created equal and should be treated equally - Women are not stupid - Women are guided and governed by their passions - Educated women have made better wives, better mothers and better citizens - Women can manage businesses just as well as men - Women could be politicians like men if they were given a shot - Men would benefit from women’s rights - Women’s rights could improve men’s rights - Intellectuals all over Europe believed that progress came from French Revolution Europe - At first, monarchies not interested in getting involved in French Revolution - Other Europeans believed that French Revolution was a good thing - After king’s flight to Varennes, Europe’s monarch realize revolutionaries are getting out of hand - Makes other monarchs realize that it’s only good for France, until Louis XVI is put on trial - After this, monarchs don’t support French Revolution AT ALL - One thing to go against government and another to execute king - June, 1791: Austrian and Prussia create Declaration of Pillnitz  Threatened to attack if Louis VXI is actually executed  They don’t think that this will have a big impact on French political events in time  They think the declaration will have a chilling effect on the revolution (put a halt on the revolution and make revolutionaries think twice about what they’re going to do to king)  Destabilizes things further  After Declaration of Pillnitz, everything changes  April 1792, French declare war  Decision to go to war that radicalizes revolution  During early phases of revolution that two political parties emerge: Feuillants and the Jacobins  Feuillants: support constitution  Constitutional monarchy  Moderation  Jacobins: more radical, favor democratic reform  Radicalists  Creating French republic  Declared republic in 1792 and Jacobins become major political party  Jacobins are major political party after 1792 and they are more radical  After 1792, Jacobins begin to split up into 2 major factions: The Mountain and the Girondins October 1, 2013 The Mountain - Centralization of power - See themselves as representatives of the common people, particularly the sans poletz - Most members from Paris - Intellectuals, radicals - Mission is to make revolution even more egalitarian and virtuous - Want to create a republic of virtue - Getting rid of religion and Christianity and churches and create something based on republic and principles - Interested in ideas of ancient rome and Greece - Want to replace Christianity with Roman/Greek virtue Girondins - Much more conservative than the Mountain - They favor local control… not state centered control like the mountain - They represent the interests of the merchants and middle-class types - They believe that the revolution had gone far enough and did not want it to become even more radical - They are in favor of a class society. They argue that egalitarianism is inherently destabilizing - All about ordered society and political stability - Argue egalitarianism is inherently destabilizing Jacobin Split - Major conflict centers on what to do with the king - There is disagreement between political parties - King was actually guilty of conspiring to put down revolution - Letters were found between Louis XVI and the Austrian government that shows that Louis VXI was sending requests to the Austrian government to violently put down revolution - On basis of thesestetters, Louis charged with treason. - Charles I was 1 monarch put on trial for treason - Girondins don’t want to execute him, they suggest exile, prison or another solution - The French, at the end of the day, vote to execute him - This decision brings a rift between The Mountain and the Girondins - After execute Louis VXI, they have no basis for discussion after this - The more radical Mountains think that the Girondins are conspiring to end revolution - Mountains become hysterical and think b/c Girondins wanted to spare king’s life, they’re conspiring to put down revolution - 1793, British and Dutch ally with Prussia and Austria in what is called the first coalition  1793, the decide to go against France October 1, 2013  International consorting of nations to come into France to put down revolution  At the same moment, there seems to be revolts in French countryside  The French are actually defeated in some of the first battles, they have trouble putting down coalition and revolts  Internal and external dissidence conspire to put down revolution  Produces mass hysteria among revolutionaries  They’re fighting for everything  The Mountain get some “good” leaders  Maximillien Robespierre: Mountain’s leader o Institutes a Reign of Terror o Brilliant student o Man of Enlightenment, deep thinker o Not a blood thirsty maniac like he is generally portrayed o Personally affronted by king and sprayed by a lot of mud as he’s preparing a speech to say to the king o After this, Robespierre really begins to hate monarchy o Man of little humor, doesn’t take things lightly o Becomes lawyer, ideal lawyer o Sees world through narrow prism he creates for himself o Becomes known for fierce defenses of indigent inequalities o He hates inequality o Devotes his life to defending poor o Wants to derail corrupt social justice system o Everybody refers him as the incorruptible b/c he’s a man of principle  The Mountain realizes that the armies suck  They think that there is something wrong with the structure of the army  Create la vie en masse  La vie en masse: Conscripting troops from entire population (nobles, working class, bourgeoisie, middle class)  Before, only lower class, criminals and indigents were in army  Army is democratic  La vie en masse is beginning of nationalism Reign of Terror - 1793-1794
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