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HIS263 St. George May 15 th North American Landscapes The Coming of Europeans The societies were trade based economies, no states but polities (political unites but not states etc Iroq Confederacy). These groups were great agriculturalist, Algon in the North still used resource management strategies, could adapt easily but tended not to rely on agriculture. Algon more egalitarian than the Huron and Iroq. North America was free from disease and people from th Europe in the 15 century (longer life expectancy in North America). Western Europe: Why did they expand, what made it special? Social Forces: Mercantilism: merchants desire for goods and wealth, needed royal permission to conduct trade, this class needed the monarch to trade. Monarchs: were willing to fund explorations to explore, war and expansion Missionaries: expand religion th th Demographic: boom, recovered from plagues of 14 century, by late 15 century they rebounded. Hierarchy: Catholic Church influence over nations (super-national) with the pope issuing guidelines that were taken up by local priests. Catholic Church gave a clear hierarchy. Missionary programs had tried to change Jews, Muslims into Christians. King was resided above a aristocracy, lived off the excess wealth by the peasants, peasants were tenants who were required to have occasional labor. Those at the bottom were usually part of the explorations and sailors of the oversea voyages, very risky (sickness, wrecks, warfare). ^social forces that contributed to the expansion European Technologies The three sail ship was advanced in European technology, woodworking, sailing etc. the oceans th were crucial for colonial power. Ship = travel mechanism and means of warfare till late 19 century. Cannon and musket > considerable role in colonialism. First Contact Not Columbus in 1492, evidence of older exchanges. 2500 years ago, south American peanuts had made there way to China, 800AD carving of god in India, knowledge of plants were being transmitted over the ocean. Evidence of the Vikings coming to North America, used to Island hop. Vikings who came had livestock with them. L’Anse aux Meadows Lief Ericsson: stories of these explorers had reached vineland at the L’anse site. Karlsefni Snorri & Bjarni “Skraelings” < 19 “Bullroarers” swinging in a certain way meant they wanted to trade or not, if they swing a certain way they wanted war. Cloak Pin: some fashionable in Viking time Age of Exploration: Printing Press: Europeans began mapping and charting the world, coincided with press, 1440 influential, 20 million books printed by 1460, knowledge and ideas were exchanged, traveling was documented. Protestant Reformation: 1517 Martin Luther corrupt practices of the catholic church, 1536 wanted to divorce his wife so he broke the church and led to the developing of a separate church. Religious divisions within Europe would play a role of colonization of North America. Late 1400s to early 1500s Portuguese early powerhouse, Cape Breton Island, aid them in helping with their fish, Basque on coast of NFLD and St. Lawrence built a station along the st Lawrence, boiling down whale fat to make products. John Cabot: sailed west to find the north west passage, made 1497 claimed what is now NFLD for England. Amergo proved to Europeans it was a new land mass in America. Trading Encounters: Fishermen & Beothuk: Beothuk were first nations in NFLD, could find materials when the Europeans left in the winter, initial impulse for Europeans to leave people behind to protect those in the output. Not positive, Europeans quite hostile encounters because of the scavenging Whalers & Micmac: Micmac corrupting with the whalers in NB, Tadoussac: fur trade on the St.Lawrence by 1500s, 1000 first nations came to trade, development of the fur trade very early, turning point when the French decided they wanted a colony. France wanted a colony. Cartier knew what to bring with him in order to trade with him, metal goods and red hats to the chiefs, based on prior trade and contact. Cartier was a French merchant, from North Western France. Only men came to trade, while the women danced, Cartier stated he was trying to claim the line who put a cross in the land to claim the land. Cartier deemed the voyage as a failure because of no passage. He took two Iroq men and brought them back to France. With the guidance of the two men he sailed to modern day Quebec Cartier: Dom Agaya & Taignoagny < two he took back to France, guided him back to the St. Lawrence and met Donnacona the boys father. Stadacona, became Quebec City. Very distrustful of each other during the time, Cartier travelled up river to Montreal “Hochelaga” long houses inside the wall, outside was fields of corn. After visiting he went to Quebec got scurvy, made tea from white cedar tree, saved 85 French lives. Cartier returned in 1541, tried to make a settlement but then went back to Europe. Last time they would send voyages in the 16 th century. Notions of hospitality were high, each side couldn’t believe the other didn’t behave how they expected. French didn’t recognize the hospitality and the Natives didn’t expect the authority of the French. Martin Frobisher: made voyages in 1576-78, trade positive interactions but the relationship degenerated, took Inuit captives, died as soon as they got to Europe. His failure was the last exploration to the artic because he didn’t find anything Lasting Effects: Set out for new resources. Didn’t find gold & silver but fish and fur. New trading relationships for firs
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