HIS263 St. George May 15 th
North American Landscapes
The Coming of Europeans
The societies were trade based economies, no states but polities (political unites but not states etc
Iroq Confederacy). These groups were great agriculturalist, Algon in the North still used
resource management strategies, could adapt easily but tended not to rely on agriculture. Algon
more egalitarian than the Huron and Iroq. North America was free from disease and people from
Europe in the 15 century (longer life expectancy in North America).
Why did they expand, what made it special?
Mercantilism: merchants desire for goods and wealth, needed royal permission to conduct trade,
this class needed the monarch to trade.
Monarchs: were willing to fund explorations to explore, war and expansion
Missionaries: expand religion
Demographic: boom, recovered from plagues of 14 century, by late 15 century they
Hierarchy: Catholic Church influence over nations (super-national) with the pope issuing
guidelines that were taken up by local priests. Catholic Church gave a clear hierarchy.
Missionary programs had tried to change Jews, Muslims into Christians. King was resided above
a aristocracy, lived off the excess wealth by the peasants, peasants were tenants who were
required to have occasional labor. Those at the bottom were usually part of the explorations and
sailors of the oversea voyages, very risky (sickness, wrecks, warfare).
^social forces that contributed to the expansion
The three sail ship was advanced in European technology, woodworking, sailing etc. the oceans
were crucial for colonial power. Ship = travel mechanism and means of warfare till late 19
century. Cannon and musket > considerable role in colonialism.
First Contact Not Columbus in 1492, evidence of older exchanges. 2500 years ago, south American peanuts
had made there way to China, 800AD carving of god in India, knowledge of plants were being
transmitted over the ocean. Evidence of the Vikings coming to North America, used to Island
hop. Vikings who came had livestock with them.
L’Anse aux Meadows
Lief Ericsson: stories of these explorers had reached vineland at the L’anse site.
Snorri & Bjarni
“Skraelings” < 19
“Bullroarers” swinging in a certain way meant they wanted to trade or not, if they swing a certain
way they wanted war.
Cloak Pin: some fashionable in Viking time
Age of Exploration:
Printing Press: Europeans began mapping and charting the world, coincided with press, 1440
influential, 20 million books printed by 1460, knowledge and ideas were exchanged, traveling
Protestant Reformation: 1517 Martin Luther corrupt practices of the catholic church, 1536
wanted to divorce his wife so he broke the church and led to the developing of a separate church.
Religious divisions within Europe would play a role of colonization of North America.
Late 1400s to early 1500s
Portuguese early powerhouse, Cape Breton Island, aid them in helping with their fish, Basque on
coast of NFLD and St. Lawrence built a station along the st Lawrence, boiling down whale fat to
John Cabot: sailed west to find the north west passage, made 1497 claimed what is now NFLD
for England. Amergo proved to Europeans it was a new land mass in America.
Fishermen & Beothuk: Beothuk were first nations in NFLD, could find materials when the
Europeans left in the winter, initial impulse for Europeans to leave people behind to protect those
in the output. Not positive, Europeans quite hostile encounters because of the scavenging
Whalers & Micmac: Micmac corrupting with the whalers in NB, Tadoussac: fur trade on the St.Lawrence by 1500s, 1000 first nations came to trade, development
of the fur trade very early, turning point when the French decided they wanted a colony.
France wanted a colony. Cartier knew what to bring with him in order to trade with him, metal
goods and red hats to the chiefs, based on prior trade and contact. Cartier was a French merchant,
from North Western France. Only men came to trade, while the women danced, Cartier stated he
was trying to claim the line who put a cross in the land to claim the land. Cartier deemed the
voyage as a failure because of no passage. He took two Iroq men and brought them back to
France. With the guidance of the two men he sailed to modern day Quebec
Cartier: Dom Agaya & Taignoagny < two he took back to France, guided him back to the St.
Lawrence and met Donnacona the boys father. Stadacona, became Quebec City.
Very distrustful of each other during the time, Cartier travelled up river to Montreal “Hochelaga”
long houses inside the wall, outside was fields of corn. After visiting he went to Quebec got
scurvy, made tea from white cedar tree, saved 85 French lives. Cartier returned in 1541, tried to
make a settlement but then went back to Europe. Last time they would send voyages in the 16 th
century. Notions of hospitality were high, each side couldn’t believe the other didn’t behave how
they expected. French didn’t recognize the hospitality and the Natives didn’t expect the authority
of the French.
Martin Frobisher: made voyages in 1576-78, trade positive interactions but the relationship
degenerated, took Inuit captives, died as soon as they got to Europe. His failure was the last
exploration to the artic because he didn’t find anything
Set out for new resources. Didn’t find gold & silver but fish and fur. New trading relationships