Royal Takeover & Consolidation of New France May 22
1. Becoming a Royal Colony
1629 Quebec was captured by the brothers, how tentative the foothold was before 1650. Conflict
with Iroq shake the period, French were attacked in south in Fort Richelieu, abandoned in 1640
(quebec). Huronia and Ste Marie aux Hurons destroyed in 1649. New France was identified by
its agriculture (cotton and tobacco) they lacked cash crops, the only substitute was fur from the
fur trade. They had to journey inland, the Huron had dislocated from their homeland so the
French traded with the Jibwa, during this period and pursuit of fur trade the French were fearful
of the Iroq and there raids, they could disrupt their ship patterns. The fur trade was open to
capture by the Iroq until 1666, where 12,000 french soliders attacked the Mohawk, they suffered
a lot but did a lot of damage, burned food supplies and caused a lot of damage to the Iroq
confederancy. Signed a peace treaty after 1666 (French did strike back and obtained 20 yrs of
Louis the 14 came to power, as 5 year old in 1661. Advisors ran it, absolutism: centralization of
legal, military and economic power. Had to address the growing strength of the Dutch and the
English. While the Monarchs of Europe had seen the power increase, Absolutism was the way to
counter this. This policy of absolutism led to a number of developments in the French States,
built “Versailles” the palace, dubbed himself the “sun king” came after he dressed up a play,
made everything revolve around him. Devoted Catholic, used state to promote catholic around
St. Lawrence: Becoming a royal economy 1663-67
Establishment of a colonial admiration in the St. Lawrence, put French administers policy in two
men: the governor, and the intendant: Jean Talon.
Governor: military man from aristocracy, Jean Colbert, represented the king in the province of
New France, military affairs, external relations, control of the colony connection with the church.
Responsible with first nations alliances. Colbert: one of Louis 14 top bureaucrats, job to expand
the French colony in the St. Lawrence. Colbert’s position to implement the policies in the
1665: First Intendant Jean Talon, centralizes the administration of the colony, intendant is the top
administration & civil servant, handles routine administration. Class: intendant was middle class,
career civil servant origin. Creation of these positions create tensions, of how to run the colony
of New France. 1667: New France is official colony of France, its like a province of France
governed centrally from Paris/Versailles. Colbert initially saw the colony has compact colony (not extended to Huronia, consolidate the St.
Lawrence). New France needed to be less dependent on fur trade, alliances to the west and focus
more on the St. Lawrence. He promoted immigration & industrialization to fill this.
Set the stage the administration structure that would last the next century.
Society had no newspaper, New France was quite difference from New England in the south,
which had a flourishing culture. New Administered apparatus, “playing card money” intendant
implemented in 1685, way to address that their wasn’t enough money, they would import the
currency it would disappear, used playing cards & signed the card and taken as the kings promise
to be used as money. Felt this was a necessary step.
Military Presence: military society, 1669 + required the male population to serve in the militia
(16-60 age). Special role of warfare: often the accompanying force of First Nations groups,
small scale raiding companies that were intended to keep the English colonies in fear, preventing
them from using their superior numbers against the French. The Habitant militia found small
scale fighting worked better with the land scale.